모바일 메뉴

KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

Open Access

pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

퀵메뉴 버튼

Most Read

home All Articles Most Read
    • Original Article l 2022-03-25

      Characterization of facial asymmetry phenotypes in adult patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion using three-dimensional computed tomography and cluster analysis

      Sang-Woon Ha , Su-Jung Kim , Jin-Young Choi , Seung-Hak Baek

      Abstract : Objective: To classify facial asymmetry (FA) phenotypes in adult patients with skeletal Class III (C-III) malocclusion. Methods: A total of 120 C-III patients who underwent orthognathic surgery (OGS) and whose three-dimensional computed tomography images were taken one month prior to OGS were evaluated. Thirty hard tissue landmarks were identified. After measurement of 22 variables, including cant (°, mm), shift (mm), and yaw (°) of the maxilla, maxillary dentition (Max-dent), mandibular dentition, mandible, and mandibular border (Man-border) and differences in the frontal ramus angle (FRA, °) and ramus height (RH, mm), K-means cluster analysis was conducted using three variables (cant in the Max-dent [mm] and shift [mm] and yaw [°] in the Man-border). Statistical analyses were conducted to characterize the differences in the FA variables among the clusters. Results: The FA phenotypes were classified into five types: 1) non-asymmetry type (35.8%); 2) maxillary-cant type (14.2%; severe cant of the Max-dent, mild shift of the Man-border); 3) mandibular-shift and yaw type (16.7%; moderate shift and yaw of the Man-border, mild RH-difference); 4) complex type (9.2%; severe cant of the Max-dent, moderate cant, severe shift, and severe yaw of the Man-border, moderate differences in FRA and RH); and 5) maxillary reverse-cant type (24.2%; reverse-cant of the Max-dent). Strategic decompensation by pre-surgical orthodontic treatment and considerations for OGS planning were proposed according to the FA phenotypes. Conclusions: This FA phenotype classification may be an effective tool for differential diagnosis and surgical planning for Class III patients with FA.

    • Reader's Forum l 2022-01-25


      Jin-Young Choi, Song Hee Oh, and Seong-Hun Kim
    • Case Report l 2022-05-25

      Maxillary space closure using a digital manufactured Mesialslider in a single appointment workflow

      Lynn Wilhelmy , Jan H. Willmann, Nour Eldin Tarraf, Benedict Wilmes, Dieter Drescher

      Abstract : New digital technologies, many involving three-dimensional printing, bring benefits for clinical applications. This article reports on the clinical procedure and fabrication of a skeletally anchored mesialization appliance (Mesialslider) using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for space closure of a congenitally missing lateral incisor in a 12-year-old female patient. The insertion of the mini-implants and appliance was performed in a single appointment. Bodily movement of the molars was achieved using the Mesialslider. Anchorage loss, such as deviation of the anterior midline or palatal tilting of the anterior teeth, was completely avoided. CAD/CAM facilitates safe and precise insertion of mini-implants. Further, mini-implants can improve patient comfort by reducing the number of office visits and eliminating the need for orthodontic bands and physical impressions.

    • Case Report l 2022-07-25

      Conservative orthodontic treatment for severe pathologic migration following total glossectomy: A case report

      Hai-Van Giap , Ji Yoon Jeon , Kee Deog Kim, Kee-Joon Lee

      Abstract : Glossectomy combined with radiotherapy causes different levels of tongue function disorders and leads to severe malocclusion, with poor periodontal status in cancer survivors. Although affected patients require regular access to orthodontic care, special considerations are crucial for treatment planning. This case report describes the satisfactory orthodontic management for the correction of severe dental crowding in a 43-year-old female 6 years after treatment for tongue cancer with total glossectomy combined with radiotherapy, to envision the possibility of orthodontic care for oral cancer survivors. Extraction was performed to correct dental crowding and establish proper occlusion following alignment, after considering the possibility of osteoradionecrosis. Orthodontic mini-implants were used to provide skeletal anchorage required for closure of the extraction space and intrusion of the anterior teeth. The dental crowding was corrected, and Class I occlusal relationship was established after 36 months of treatment. The treatment outcome was sustained after 15 months of retention, and long-term follow-up was recommended.

    • Original Article l 2022-01-25

      Accuracy of one-step automated orthodontic diagnosis model using a convolutional neural network and lateral cephalogram images with different qualities obtained from nationwide multi-hospitals

      Sunjin Yim , Sungchul Kim , Inhwan Kim, Jae-Woo Park, Jin-Hyoung Cho, Mihee Hong, Kyung-Hwa Kang, Minji Kim, Su-Jung Kim, Yoon-Ji Kim, Young Ho Kim, Sung-Hoon Lim, Sang Jin Sung, Namkug Kim , Seung-Hak Baek

      Abstract : Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of one-step automated orthodontic diagnosis of skeletodental discrepancies using a convolutional neural network (CNN) and lateral cephalogram images with different qualities from nationwide multi-hospitals. Methods: Among 2,174 lateral cephalograms, 1,993 cephalograms from two hospitals were used for training and internal test sets and 181 cephalograms from eight other hospitals were used for an external test set. They were divided into three classification groups according to anteroposterior skeletal discrepancies (Class I, II, and III), vertical skeletal discrepancies (normodivergent, hypodivergent, and hyperdivergent patterns), and vertical dental discrepancies (normal overbite, deep bite, and open bite) as a gold standard. Pre-trained DenseNet-169 was used as a CNN classifier model. Diagnostic performance was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, t-stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE), and gradientweighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM). Results: In the ROC analysis, the mean area under the curve and the mean accuracy of all classifications were high with both internal and external test sets (all, > 0.89 and > 0.80). In the t-SNE analysis, our model succeeded in creating good separation between three classification groups. Grad-CAM figures showed differences in the location and size of the focus areas between three classification groups in each diagnosis. Conclusions: Since the accuracy of our model was validated with both internal and external test sets, it shows the possible usefulness of a one-step automated orthodontic diagnosis tool using a CNN model. However, it still needs technical improvement in terms of classifying vertical dental discrepancies.

    • Original Article l 2022-01-25

      Incidence and management of condylar resorption after orthognathic surgery: An overview

      Selene Barone , Giorgio Cosentini, Francesco Bennardo, Alessandro Antonelli, Amerigo Giudice

      Abstract : Objective: Condylar resorption (CR) is one of the major post-surgical complications of orthognathic surgery. This systematic review (SR) aimed to evaluate epidemiological data, risk factors, and therapeutical management of CR. Methods: Six databases were screened by two investigators until September 2020 to obtain all SRs. After reading the titles and abstracts, eligible SRs were determined and data extraction was performed. Using the latest version of A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews, the methodological quality of the included SRs was determined. Results: Ten SRs with low or critically-low methodological quality were included in this review. Mandibular hypoplasia on the sagittal plane and hyperdivergent growth pattern on the vertical plane were the most common skeletal alterations in which CR could occur after orthognathic surgery. Post-operative condylar changes were analyzed both on two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) radiographic examinations. The incidence of CR was not related to the fixation method. Based on the severity of the pathological conditions, management of CR can include conservative or surgical therapy. Conclusions: Despite the limited evidence in literature, CR is considered a consequence of orthognathic surgery. However, an accurate diagnosis of CR and a better orthognathic surgical planning must include 3D radiographic examinations to improve pre- and post-surgical comparison. Well-designed studies with long-term follow-up and 3D data are needed to clarify the findings of this analysis..

    • Original Article l 2022-05-25

      Occlusal deviations in adolescents with idiopathic and congenital scoliosis

      Hao Zhang , Jingbo Ma , Zhicheng Zhang , Yafei Feng, Chuan Cai, Chao Wang

      Abstract : Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the characteristics of malocclusions in scoliotic patients through clinical examinations. Methods: Fifty-eight patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and 48 patients with congenital scoliosis (CS) participated in the study. A randomly selected group of 152 orthopedically healthy children served as the control group. Standardized orthodontic and orthopedic examination protocols were used to record the occlusal patterns and type of scoliosis. Assessments were made by three experienced orthodontists and a spinal surgery team. The differences in the frequency distribution of occlusal patterns were evaluated by the chi-squared test. Results: In comparison with patients showing IS, patients with CS showed a higher incidence of Cobb angle ≥ 45° (p = 0.020) and included a higher proportion of patients receiving surgical treatments (p < 0.001). The distribution of the Angle Class II subgroup was significantly higher in the IS (p < 0.001) and CS (p = 0.031) groups than in the control group. In comparison with the healthy controls, the CS and IS groups showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) frequencies of asymmetric molar and asymmetric canine relationships, upper and lower middle line deviations, anterior deep overbite, unilateral posterior crossbite, and canted occlusal plane, with the frequencies being especially higher in CS patients and to a lesser extent in IS patients. Conclusions: Patients with scoliosis showed a high frequency of malocclusions, which were most obvious in patients with CS.

    • Original Article l 2022-05-25

      Which anchorage device is the best during retraction of anterior teeth? An overview of systematic reviews

      Yassir A. Yassir , Sarah A. Nabbat, Grant T. McIntyre, David R. Bearn

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate the available evidence regarding the clinical effectiveness of different types of anchorage devices. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of different electronic databases was conducted for systematic reviews investigating different anchorage methods published up to April 15, 2021. Any ongoing systematic reviews were searched using PROSPERO, and a grey literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar and OpenGrey. No language restriction was applied. Screening, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed independently by two authors. Information was categorized and narratively synthesized for the key findings from moderate- and high-quality reviews. Results: Fourteen systematic reviews were included (11 were of moderate/high quality). Skeletal anchorage with miniscrews was associated with less anchorage loss (and sometimes with anchorage gain). Similarly, skeletal anchorage was more effective in retracting anterior teeth and intruding incisors and molars, resulting in minor vertical skeletal changes and improvements in the soft tissue profile. However, insufficient evidence was obtained for the preference of any anchorage method in terms of the duration of treatment, number of appointments, quality of treatment, patient perception, or adverse effects. The effectiveness of skeletal anchorage can be enhanced when: directly loaded, used in the mandible rather than the maxilla, used buccally rather than palatally, using dual rather than single miniscrews, used for en-masse retraction, and in adults. Conclusions: The level of evidence regarding anchorage effectiveness is moderate. Nevertheless, compared to conventional anchorage, skeletal anchorage can be used with more anchorage preservation. Further high-quality randomized clinical trials are required to confirm these findings.

    • Case Report l 2022-09-25

      Clinical application of maxillary tissue bone-borne expander and biocreative reverse curve system in the orthodontic retreatment of severe anterior open bite with transverse discrepancy: A case report

      Jin-Young Choi , Bai Jin , Seong-Hun Kim

      Abstract : Anterior open bite and transverse discrepancy are often accompanied by hyperdivergent skeletal patterns. In addition, degenerative joint disorders and vertical maxillary excess contribute to an unfavorable convex facial profile with a retruded chin. Correction of this complex three-dimensional problem with orthodontic treatment alone is considered challenging owing to anatomical limitations. Moreover, a history of orthodontic treatment with premolar extraction makes retreatment difficult. This case report illustrates the application of a maxillary tissue bone-borne expander and biocreative reverse curve system in a 23-year-old female patient with a severe anterior open bite and transverse discrepancy who underwent orthodontic treatment with four premolar extractions. By setting the treatment target under precise diagnosis and using appropriate appliances, a satisfactory treatment result could be achieved without orthognathic surgery.


Current Issue

November, 2023
Vol.53 No.6

Past Issues

QR Code hover

Mobile QR code

QR Code QR Code

Journal Impact Factor

  • 1.9
    2022 IF

  • 2.3
    5-Year IF

SJR (Scimago Journal & Country Rank)

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Keyword analysis

Editorial Office

Fax. +82-2-464-9154
Home page
Society. www.kao.or.kr

Clinical Journal of Korean Association of Orthodontists