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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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    • Brief Report l 2021-03-25

      Micro-computed tomography evaluation of general trends in aligner thickness and gap width after thermoforming procedures involving six commercial clear aligners: An in vitro study

      Mario Palone , Mattia Longo, Niki Arveda, Michele Nacucchi, Fabio De Pascalis, Giorgio Alfredo Spedicato, Giuseppe Siciliani, Luca Lombardo

      Abstract : Objective: To assess the effects of thermoforming on aligner thickness and gap width in six aligner systems with the same nominal thickness. Methods: Six passive upper aligners of different brands were adapted to a single printed cast. Each sample was evaluated with high-resolution micro-computed tomography. To investigate aligner thickness and gap width, two-dimensional (2D) analysis was conducted assessing the effects of the following variables: tooth type (central incisor, canine, and first molar), 2D reference points, and aligner type. Data were analyzed and compared using analysis of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc tests (p < 0.05). Results: Tooth type, dental region, and aligner type affected both the gap width and aligner thickness. The aligner thickness remained moderately stable across the arch only in the F22. Conclusions: All thermoformed samples displayed smaller aligner thickness and gap width at anterior teeth and both gingival and coronal centers than at posterior teeth and occlusal surfaces.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-11-25

      Miniscrew insertion sites of infrazygomatic crest and mandibular buccal shelf in different vertical craniofacial patterns: A cone-beam computed tomography study

      Murilo Matias , Carlos Flores-Mir, Márcio Rodrigues de Almeida, Bruno da Silva Vieira, Karina Maria Salvatore de Freitas, Daniela Calabrese Nunes, Marcos Cezar Ferreira, Weber Ursi

      Abstract : Objective: To identify optimal areas for the insertion of extra-alveolar miniscrews into the infrazygomatic crest (IZC) and mandibular buccal shelf (MBS), using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in patients with different craniofacial patterns. Methods: CBCT reconstructions of untreated individuals were used to evaluate the IZC and MBS areas. The participants were divided into three groups, based on the craniofacial pattern, namely, brachyfacial (n = 15; mean age, 23.3 years), mesofacial (n = 15; mean age, 19.24 years), and dolichofacial (n = 15; mean age, 17.79 years). In the IZC, the evaluated areas were at 11, 13, and 15 mm above the buccal cusp tips of the right and left first molars. In the MBS, the evaluated areas were at the projections of the first molars’ distal roots and second molars’ mesial and distal roots, at a 4- and 8-mm distance from the cementoenamel junction. Intergroup comparisons were performed with analysis of variance and the Tukey test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the IZC bone thickness among the groups. For MBS bone availability, some comparisons revealed no difference; meanwhile, other comparisons revealed increased MBS bone thickness in the brachyfacial (first molars distal roots) and dolichofacial (second molars mesial and distal roots) patterns. Conclusions: There was no significant difference in the IZC bone thickness among the groups. The facial skeletal pattern may affect the availability of ideal bone thickness for the insertion of extra-alveolar miniscrews in the MBS region; however, this variability is unlikely to be clinically meaningful.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-05-25

      Evaluation of strategic uprighting of the mandibular molars using an orthodontic miniplate and a nickel-titanium reverse curve arch wire: Preliminary cephalometric study

      Jae-Hyun Park , HyeRan Choo , Jin-Young Choi, Kyu-Rhim Chung, Seong-Hun Kim

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate the overall treatment effects in terms of the amount of uprighting with changes in the sagittal and vertical positions of mandibular molars after applying an orthodontic miniplate with a nickel-titanium (NiTi) reverse curve arch wire (biocreative reverse curve [BRC] system). Methods: A total of 30 female patients (mean age, 25.99 ± 8.96 years) were treated with the BRC system (mean BRC time, 10.3 ± 4.07 months). An I-shaped C-tube miniplate (Jin Biomed) was placed at the labial aspect for the alveolar bone of the mandibular incisors. A 0.017 × 0.025-inch NiTi reverse curve arch wire was engaged at the C-tube mini-plate anteriorly and the first and second premolars and molars posteriorly in the mandibular arch. Pre- and post-BRC lateral cephalograms were analyzed. A paired t-test was used to analyze the treatment effects of BRC. Results: The mandibular second molars were intrusively uprighted successfully by the BRC system. Distal uprighting with a controlled vertical dimension was noted on the first molars when they remained engaged in the BRC and the distal ends of the arch wire were laid on the second molars. The mandibular first and second premolars showed a slight extrusion. The changes in the mandibular incisors were unremarkable, while the mandibular molar angulation improved significantly. The lower occlusal plane rotated counterclockwise (MP-LOP: 1.13° ± 2.60°). Conclusions: The BRC system can provide very effective molar uprighting without compromising the position of the mandibular anterior teeth.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-05-25

      Effect of extraction treatment on upper airway dimensions in patients with bimaxillary skeletal protrusion relative to their vertical skeletal pattern

      Ha-Nul Cho , Hyun Joo Yoon, Jae Hyun Park, Young-Guk Park, Su-Jung Kim

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate dimensional changes in regional pharyngeal airway spaces after premolar extraction in bimaxillary skeletal protrusion (BSP) patients according to vertical skeletal pattern, and to further identify dentoskeletal risk factors to predict posttreatment pharyngeal changes. Methods: Fifty-five adults showing BSP treated with microimplant anchorage after four premolar extractions were included in this retrospective study. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the mandibular plane steepness: hyperdivergent (Frankfort horizontal plane to mandibular plane [FH-MP] ≥ 30) and nonhyperdivergent groups (FH-MP < 30). The control group consisted of 20 untreated adults with skeletal Class I normodivergent pattern and favorable profile. Treatment changes in cephalometric variables were evaluated and compared. The association between posttreatment changes in the dentoskeletal and upper airway variables were analyzed using linear regression analysis. Results: The BSP patients showed no significant decrease in the pharyngeal dimensions to the lower level in comparison with controls, except for middle airway space (MAS, p < 0.01). The upper airway variable representing greater decrease in the hyperdivergent group than in the nonhyperdivergent group was the MAS (p < 0.01). Posttreatment changes in FH-MP had negative correlation with changes in MAS (β = –0.42, p < 0.01) and inferior airway space (β = –0.52, p < 0.01) as a result of multivariable regression analysis adjusted for sagittal skeletal relationship. Conclusions: Decreased pharyngeal dimensions after treatment in BSP patients showed no significant difference from the normal range of pharyngeal dimensions. However, the glossopharyngeal airway space may be susceptible to treatment when vertical dimension increased in hyperdivergent BSP patients.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-03-25

      Full-arch accuracy of five intraoral scanners: In vivo analysis of trueness and precision

      Miran Kwon , Youngmok Cho, Dong-Wook Kim, MyungSu Kim, Yoon-Ji Kim , Minho Chang

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate the trueness and precision of full-arch scans acquired using five intraoral scanners and investigate the factors associated with the dimensional accuracy of the intraoral scan data. Methods: Nine adult participants (mean age, 34.3 ± 8.3 years) were recruited. Four zirconium spheres (Ø 6 mm) were bonded to the canines and the molars. Following acquisition of reference scans using an industrial-grade scanner, five intraoral scanners, namely i500, CS3600, Trios 3, iTero, and CEREC Omnicam, were used to scan the arches. Linear distances between the four reference spheres were automatically calculated, and linear mixed model analysis was performed to compare the trueness and precision of the intraoral scan data among the different scanners. Results: The absolute mean trueness and precision values for all intraoral scanners were 76.6 ± 79.3 and 56.6 ± 52.4 μm, respectively. The type of scanner and the measured linear distances had significant effects on the accuracy of the intraoral scan data. With regard to trueness, errors in the intermolar dimension and the distance from the canine to the contralateral molar were greater with Omnicam than with the other scanners. With regard to precision, the error in the linear distance from the canine to the molar in the same quadrant was greater with Omnicam and CS3600 than with the other scanners. Conclusions: The dimensional accuracy of intraoral scan data may differ significantly according to the type of scanner, with the amount of error in terms of trueness being clinically significant.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-09-25

      Accurate transfer of bimaxillary orthognathic surgical plans using computer-aided intraoperative navigation

      Chen Chen , Ningning Sun, Chunmiao Jiang, Yanshan Liu, Jian Sun

      Abstract : Objective: To examine the accuracy of computer-aided intraoperative navigation (Ci-Navi) in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery by comparing preoperative planning and postoperative outcome. Methods: The study comprised 45 patients with congenital dentomaxillofacial deformities who were scheduled to undergo bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Virtual bimaxillary orthognathic surgery was simulated using Mimics software. Intraoperatively, a Le Fort I osteotomy of the maxilla was performed using osteotomy guide plates. After the Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy of the mandible, the mobilized maxilla and the distal mandibular segment were fixed using an occlusal splint, forming the maxillomandibular complex (MMC). Realtime Ci-Navi was used to lead the MMC in the designated direction. Osteoplasty of the inferior border of the mandible was performed using Ci-Navi when facial symmetry and skeletal harmony were of concern. Linear and angular distinctions between preoperative planning and postoperative outcomes were calculated. Results: The mean linear difference was 0.79 mm (maxilla: 0.62 mm, mandible: 0.88 mm) and the overall mean angular difference was 1.20°. The observed difference in the upper incisor point to the Frankfort horizontal plane, midfacial sagittal plane, and coronal plane was < 1 mm in 40 cases. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the role of Ci-Navi in the accurate positioning of bone segments during bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Ci-Navi was found to be a reliable method for the accurate transfer of the surgical plan during an operation.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-03-25

      Evaluation of a multi-stage convolutional neural network-based fully automated landmark identification system using cone-beam computed tomographysynthesized posteroanterior cephalometric images

      Min-Jung Kim , Yi Liu, Song Hee Oh, Hyo-Won Ahn, Seong-Hun Kim , Gerald Nelson

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of a multi-stage convolutional neural network (CNN) model-based automated identification system for posteroanterior (PA) cephalometric landmarks. Methods: The multi-stage CNN model was implemented with a personal computer. A total of 430 PA-cephalograms synthesized from cone-beam computed tomography scans (CBCT-PA) were selected as samples. Twenty-three landmarks used for Tweemac analysis were manually identified on all CBCT-PA images by a single examiner. Intra-examiner reproducibility was confirmed by repeating the identification on 85 randomly selected images, which were subsequently set as test data, with a two-week interval before training. For initial learning stage of the multi-stage CNN model, the data from 345 of 430 CBCT-PA images were used, after which the multi-stage CNN model was tested with previous 85 images. The first manual identification on these 85 images was set as a truth ground. The mean radial error (MRE) and successful detection rate (SDR) were calculated to evaluate the errors in manual identification and artificial intelligence (AI) prediction. Results: The AI showed an average MRE of 2.23 ± 2.02 mm with an SDR of 60.88% for errors of 2 mm or lower. However, in a comparison of the repetitive task, the AI predicted landmarks at the same position, while the MRE for the repeated manual identification was 1.31 ± 0.94 mm. Conclusions: Automated identification for CBCT-synthesized PA cephalometric landmarks did not sufficiently achieve the clinically favorable error range of less than 2 mm. However, AI landmark identification on PA cephalograms showed better consistency than manual identification.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-07-25

      Effectiveness of medical coating materials in decreasing friction between orthodontic brackets and archwires

      Nursel Arici , Berat S. Akdeniz, Abdullah A. Oz, Yucel Gencer, Mehmet Tarakci, Selim Arici

      Abstract : Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the changes in friction between orthodontic brackets and archwires coated with aluminum oxide (Al2O3), titanium nitride (TiN), or chromium nitride (CrN). In addition, the resistance of the coatings to intraoral conditions was evaluated. Methods: Stainless steel canine brackets, 0.016-inch round nickel–titanium archwires, and 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwires were coated with Al2O3, TiN, and CrN using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The coated materials were examined using scanning electron microscopy, an X-ray diffractometer, atomic force microscopy, and surface profilometry. In addition, the samples were subjected to thermal cycling and in vitro brushing tests, and the effects of the simulated intraoral conditions on the coating structure were evaluated. Results: Coating of the metal bracket as well as nickel–titanium archwire with Al2O3 reduced the coefficients of friction (CoFs) for the bracket–archwire combination (p < 0.01). When the bracket and stainless steel archwire were coated with Al2O3 and TiN, the CoFs were significantly lower (0.207 and 0.372, respectively) than that recorded when this bracket–archwire combination was left uncoated (0.552; p < 0.01). The friction, thermal, and brushing tests did not deteriorate the overall quality of the Al2O3 coatings; however, some small areas of peeling were evident for the TiN coatings, whereas comparatively larger areas of peeling were observed for the CrN coatings. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the CoFs for metal bracket–archwire combinations used in orthodontic treatment can be decreased by coating with Al2O3 and TiN thin films.

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