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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

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    • Case Report l 2022-11-25

      Orthodontic treatment with clear aligners for a patient with chronic periodontitis

      Jiehua Zhang , Jun Li, Youjian Peng

      Abstract : This case report describes the treatment of an adult female patient with a history of periodontal disease, Class I malocclusion with extrusion, dental spaces, and pathologic tooth migration. The patient was treated with clear aligners, which effectively controlled the strength and direction of orthodontic forces after 3 months of systematic periodontal treatment. The Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index was calculated from study models before and after treatment. The pretreatment PAR score was 24, and the posttreatment PAR score was 4. The PAR score for this patient changed by 83%. Satisfactory appearance and good function were achieved for this patient.

    • Case Report l 2022-07-25

      Conservative orthodontic treatment for severe pathologic migration following total glossectomy: A case report

      Hai-Van Giap , Ji Yoon Jeon , Kee Deog Kim, Kee-Joon Lee

      Abstract : Glossectomy combined with radiotherapy causes different levels of tongue function disorders and leads to severe malocclusion, with poor periodontal status in cancer survivors. Although affected patients require regular access to orthodontic care, special considerations are crucial for treatment planning. This case report describes the satisfactory orthodontic management for the correction of severe dental crowding in a 43-year-old female 6 years after treatment for tongue cancer with total glossectomy combined with radiotherapy, to envision the possibility of orthodontic care for oral cancer survivors. Extraction was performed to correct dental crowding and establish proper occlusion following alignment, after considering the possibility of osteoradionecrosis. Orthodontic mini-implants were used to provide skeletal anchorage required for closure of the extraction space and intrusion of the anterior teeth. The dental crowding was corrected, and Class I occlusal relationship was established after 36 months of treatment. The treatment outcome was sustained after 15 months of retention, and long-term follow-up was recommended.

    • Original Article l 2022-05-25

      Which anchorage device is the best during retraction of anterior teeth? An overview of systematic reviews

      Yassir A. Yassir , Sarah A. Nabbat, Grant T. McIntyre, David R. Bearn

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate the available evidence regarding the clinical effectiveness of different types of anchorage devices. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of different electronic databases was conducted for systematic reviews investigating different anchorage methods published up to April 15, 2021. Any ongoing systematic reviews were searched using PROSPERO, and a grey literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar and OpenGrey. No language restriction was applied. Screening, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed independently by two authors. Information was categorized and narratively synthesized for the key findings from moderate- and high-quality reviews. Results: Fourteen systematic reviews were included (11 were of moderate/high quality). Skeletal anchorage with miniscrews was associated with less anchorage loss (and sometimes with anchorage gain). Similarly, skeletal anchorage was more effective in retracting anterior teeth and intruding incisors and molars, resulting in minor vertical skeletal changes and improvements in the soft tissue profile. However, insufficient evidence was obtained for the preference of any anchorage method in terms of the duration of treatment, number of appointments, quality of treatment, patient perception, or adverse effects. The effectiveness of skeletal anchorage can be enhanced when: directly loaded, used in the mandible rather than the maxilla, used buccally rather than palatally, using dual rather than single miniscrews, used for en-masse retraction, and in adults. Conclusions: The level of evidence regarding anchorage effectiveness is moderate. Nevertheless, compared to conventional anchorage, skeletal anchorage can be used with more anchorage preservation. Further high-quality randomized clinical trials are required to confirm these findings.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-05-25

      Occlusal deviations in adolescents with idiopathic and congenital scoliosis

      Hao Zhang , Jingbo Ma , Zhicheng Zhang , Yafei Feng, Chuan Cai, Chao Wang

      Abstract : Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the characteristics of malocclusions in scoliotic patients through clinical examinations. Methods: Fifty-eight patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and 48 patients with congenital scoliosis (CS) participated in the study. A randomly selected group of 152 orthopedically healthy children served as the control group. Standardized orthodontic and orthopedic examination protocols were used to record the occlusal patterns and type of scoliosis. Assessments were made by three experienced orthodontists and a spinal surgery team. The differences in the frequency distribution of occlusal patterns were evaluated by the chi-squared test. Results: In comparison with patients showing IS, patients with CS showed a higher incidence of Cobb angle ≥ 45° (p = 0.020) and included a higher proportion of patients receiving surgical treatments (p < 0.001). The distribution of the Angle Class II subgroup was significantly higher in the IS (p < 0.001) and CS (p = 0.031) groups than in the control group. In comparison with the healthy controls, the CS and IS groups showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) frequencies of asymmetric molar and asymmetric canine relationships, upper and lower middle line deviations, anterior deep overbite, unilateral posterior crossbite, and canted occlusal plane, with the frequencies being especially higher in CS patients and to a lesser extent in IS patients. Conclusions: Patients with scoliosis showed a high frequency of malocclusions, which were most obvious in patients with CS.

    • Case Report l 2023-01-25

      Correction of late adolescent skeletal Class III using the Alt-RAMEC protocol and skeletal anchorage

      Muhammed Hilmi Büyükçavuş, Ömer Faruk Sari, Yavuz Findik

      Abstract : This case report describes skeletal anchorage-supported maxillary protraction performed with the Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol over a treatment duration of 14 months in a 16-year-old female patient who was in the late growth-development period. Miniplates were applied to the patient's aperture piriformis area to apply force from the protraction appliance. After 9 weeks of following the Alt-RAMEC protocol, miniplates were used to transfer a unilateral 500-g protraction force to a Petit-type face mask. A significant improvement was observed in the soft tissue profile in measurements made both cephalometrically and in three dimensional photographs. Subsequently, the second phase of fixed orthodontic treatment was started and the treatment was completed with the retention phase. Following treatment completion, occlusion, smile esthetics, and soft tissue profile improved significantly in response to orthopedic and orthodontic treatment.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2023-11-25

      Three-dimensional evaluation of the pharyngeal airway space in patients with anterior open bite

      Seong-Sik Kim , Yong-Il Kim, Soo-Byung Park, Sung-Hun Kim

      Abstract : Objective: This study aimed to three-dimensionally evaluate the pharyngeal airway space (PAS) of patients with anterior open bite (AOB) by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compare the findings with those obtained in individuals with normal occlusion. Methods: The open bite group (OBG, n = 25) consisted of patients with an anterior overbite of –3 mm or less, while the control group (n = 25) consisted of age- and sex-matched individuals with an anterior overbite of 1–3 mm, Angle Class I malocclusion (1° ≤ point A-nasion-point B angle ≤ 4°), and a normodivergent profile (22° ≤ Frankfort mandibular plane angle ≤ 28°). After the CBCT data were reconstructed into a three-dimensional image, the PAS was segmented into four parts, and the volume of each part was measured. Pharyngeal airway length (PAL) and the area and transverse width of the part showing minimal constriction were also measured. Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between changes in the PAS and the amount of anterior overbite. Results: The OBG showed a significantly narrower airway space in the nasopharyngeal, hypopharyngeal, and total airway volumes. The OBG also showed a significantly smaller area and transverse width of the part with minimal constriction. The OBG showed a significantly longer PAL, but there was no correlation between the amount of anterior overbite and the changes in PAS. Conclusions: The PAS was associated with AOB. Patients with AOB had a narrower PAS and a smaller part showing minimal constriction.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-09-25

      A cone-beam computed tomography study on strategic uprighting of mandibular molars using a biocreative reverse curve system

      Jae-Woo Kim , Jin-Young Choi , Min-Ji Kim, Xu Bin, Seong-Hun Kim

      Abstract : Objective: To analyze the overall treatment effects in terms of the amount of uprighting with changes in the three-dimensional positions of the mandibular posterior teeth after applying the biocreative reverse curve (BRC) system. Methods: Thirty-four patients (mean age, 20.5 ± 8.56 years) were treated using the BRC system (mean period, 8.17 ± 2.19 months). Cone-beam computed tomography was performed before treatment and after treatment with the BRC system. The three-dimensional movement of each tooth was analyzed in the coordinate system at points on the crown and root apex. A paired t-test was used to analyze the treatment effects of the BRC system. Results: The application of the BRC system spanning from the first premolar to the second molar resulted not only in buccal and distal uprighting, but also in increased buccal and distal tipping of the teeth. The premolars and the first molar were extruded, and the second molar was intruded. Conclusions: When the BRC system is applied, simultaneous distal and buccal uprighting of the premolars and molars can be achieved bilaterally using a temporary skeletal anchorage device without unnecessary movement of the anterior teeth.

    • Reader’s Forum l 2022-07-25

      READER’S FORUM

      Jaehyun Kim and Jiyoung Oh
    • Original Article l 2023-03-25

      Three-dimensional evaluation of the mandibular condyle in adults with various skeletal patterns

      Ahmed Maher Mohsen , Junjie Ye , Akram Al-Nasri, Catherine Chu, Wei-Bing Zhang , Lin-Wang

      Abstract : Objective: Morphometric and morphological evaluation of the mandibular condyle in adults and to identify its correlation with skeletal malocclusion patterns. Methods: Cone-beam computed tomography scans of 135 adult patients were used in this study and classified into groups according to four criteria: (1) sex (male and female); (2) sagittal skeletal discrepancy (Class I, Class II, and Class III); (3) vertical skeletal discrepancy (hyperdivergent, normodivergent, and hypodivergent); and age (group 1 ≤ 20 years, 21 ≤ group 2 < 30, and group 3 ≥ 30 years). The morphometrical variables were mandibular condyle height and width, and the morphological variable was the mandibular condyle shape in coronal and sagittal sections. Three-dimensional standard tessellation language files were created using itk-snap (open-source software), and measurements were performed using Meshmixer (open-source software). Results: The mandibular condyle height was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in patients with class III malocclusion than in those with class I or II malocclusion; the mandibular condyle width was not significantly different among different sexes, age groups, and sagittal and vertical malocclusions. There were no statistical associations between various mandibular condyle shapes and the sexes, age groups, and skeletal malocclusions. Conclusions: The condylar height was greatest in patients with class III malocclusion. The condylar height and width were greater among males than in females. The mandibular condyle shapes observed in sagittal and coronal sections did not affect the skeletal malocclusion patterns.

      Abstract  
    • Case Report l 2023-03-25

      Histological analysis on tissues around orthodontically intruded maxillary molars using temporary anchorage devices: A case report

      Hui-Chen Tsai , Julia Yu-Fong Chang, Chia-Chun Tu, Chung-Chen Jane Yao

      Abstract : Before progress was recently made in the application of temporary anchorage devices (TADs) in bio-mechanical design, orthodontists were rarely able to intrude molars to reduce upper posterior dental height (UPDH). However, TADs are now widely used to intrude molars to flatten the occlusal plane or induce counterclockwise rotation of the mandible. Previous studies involving clinical or animal histological evaluation on changes in periodontal conditions after molar intrusion have been reported, however, studies involving human histology are scarce. This case was a Class I malocclusion with a high mandibular plane angle. Upper molar intrusion with TADs was performed to reduce UPDH, which led to counterclockwise rotation of the mandible. After 5 months of upper molar intrusion, shortened clinical crowns were noticed, which caused difficulties in oral hygiene and hindered orthodontic tooth movement. The mid-treatment cone-beam computed tomography revealed redundant bone physically interfering with buccal attachment and osseous resective surgeries were followed. During the surgeries, bilateral mini screws were removed and bulging alveolar bone and gingiva were harvested for biopsy. Histological examination revealed bacterial colonies at the bottom of the sulcus. Infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells underneath the non-keratinized sulcular epithelium was noted, with abundant capillaries being filled with red blood cells. Proximal alveolar bone facing the bottom of the gingival sulcus exhibited active bone remodeling and woven bone formation with plump osteocytes in the lacunae. On the other hand, buccal alveolar bone exhibited lamination, indicating slow bone turnover in the lateral region.

      Abstract  

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March, 2024
Vol.54 No.2

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