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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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    • Original Article l 2021-05-25

      Midfacial soft tissue changes after maxillary expansion using micro-implant-supported maxillary skeletal expanders in young adults: A retrospective study

      Hieu Nguyen , Jeong Won Shin , Hai-Van Giap, Ki Beom Kim, Hwa Sung Chae, Young Ho Kim, Hae Won Choi

      Abstract : Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the midfacial soft tissue changes following maxillary expansion using micro-implant-supported maxillary skeletal expanders (MSEs) in young adults by cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) and to evaluate the correlations between hard and soft tissue changes after MSE usage. Methods: Twenty patients (mean age, 22.4 years; range, 17.6–27.1) with maxillary transverse deficiency treated with MSEs were selected. Mean expansion amount was 6.5 mm. CBCT images taken before and after expansion were superimposed to measure the changes in soft and hard tissue landmarks. Statistical analyses were performed using paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis on the basis of the normality of data. Results: Average lateral movement of the cheek points was 1.35 mm (right) and 1.08 mm (left), and that of the alar curvature points was 1.03 mm (right) and 1.02 mm (left). Average forward displacement of the cheek points was 0.59 mm (right) and 0.44 mm (left), and that of the alar curvature points was 0.61 mm (right) and 0.77 mm (left) (p < 0.05). Anterior nasal spine (ANS), posterior nasal spine (PNS), and alveolar bone width showed significant increments (p < 0.05). Changes in the cheek and alar curvature points on both sides significantly correlated with hard tissue changes (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Maxillary expansion using MSEs resulted in significant lateral and forward movements of the soft tissues of cheek and alar curvature points on both sides in young adults and correlated with the maxillary suture opening at the ANS and PNS.

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    • Original Article l 2020-07-25

      Construction reproducibility of a composite tooth model composed of an intraoral-scanned crown and a cone-beam computed tomography-scanned root

      Seung-Weon Lim , Ryu-Jin Moon, Min-Seok Kim, Min-Hee Oh, Kyung-Min Lee, Hyeon-Shik Hwang, Tae-Woo Kim, Seung-Hak Baek, Jin-Hyoung Cho

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate the construction reproducibility of a composite tooth model (CTM) composed of an intraoral-scanned crown and a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-scanned root. Methods: The study assessed 240 teeth (30 central incisors, 30 canines, 30 second premolars, and 30 first molars in the maxillary and mandibular arches) from 15 young adult patients whose pre-treatment intraoral scan and CBCT were available. Examiner-Reference (3 years’ experience in CTM construction) and Examiners-A and Examiner-B (no experience) constructed the individual CTMs independently by performing the following steps: image acquisition and processing into a three-dimensional model, integration of intraoral-scanned crowns and CBCT-scanned teeth, and replacement of the CBCT-scanned crown with the intraoral-scanned crown. The tooth axis angle in terms of mesiodistal angulation and buccolingual inclination of the CTMs constructed by the three examiners were measured. To assess the construction reproducibility of CTMs, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) assessments were performed. Results: The ICC values of mesiodistal angulation and buccolingual inclination among the 3 examiners showed excellent agreement (0.950–0.992 and 0.965–0.993; 0.976–0.994 and 0.973–0.995 in the maxillary and mandibular arches, respectively). Conclusions: The CTM showed excellent construction reproducibility in mesiodistal angulation and buccolingual inclination regardless of the construction skill and experience levels of the examiners.

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    • Original Article l 2020-05-25

      Periodontal ligament proliferation and expressions of bone biomolecules upon orthodontic preloading: Clinical implications for tooth autotransplantation

      Sasathorn Phutinart , Suttichai Krisanaprakornkit, Anupong Makeudom, Boonsiva Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo Suzuki

      Abstract : Objective: Preservation of the periodontal ligament (PDL) is vital to the success of tooth autotransplantation (TAT). Increased PDL volumes and facilitated tooth extraction have been observed upon orthodontic preloading. However, it is unclear whether any changes occur in the expressions of bone biomolecules in the increased PDL volumes. This study aimed to determine the expressions of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in PDL upon preloading. Methods: Seventy-two premolars from 18 patients were randomly assigned to experimental groups that received a leveling force for 1, 2, or 4 weeks or to a control unloaded group. Following extraction, PDL volumes from 32 premolars of eight patients (21.0 ± 3.8 years) were evaluated using toluidine blue staining. The expressions of the biomolecules in the PDL from 40 premolars of ten patients (21.4 ± 4.0 years) were analyzed via immunoblotting. Results: The median percentage of stained PDL was significantly higher at 2 and 4 weeks after preloading than in the unloaded condition (p < 0.05). The median RUNX2 and ALP expression levels were significantly higher at 2 and 4 weeks after preloading than in the unloaded condition (p < 0.05), whereas the median RANKL/OPG ratios were significantly higher at 1 and 4 weeks after preloading (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Orthodontic preloading for 4 weeks enhances PDL volumes as well as the expressions of RUNX2, ALP and the RANKL/OPG ratio in the PDL, suggesting this loading period is suitable for successful TAT.

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    • Original Article l 2020-05-25

      Assessment of bone density changes following two-jaw surgery using multidetector computed tomography: A pilot study

      Youngjoo Lee , Jae Hyun Park, Na-Young Chang, Mi-Young Lee, Bong Chul Kim, Hye Young Seo, Utkarsh Mangal, Jong-Moon Chae

      Abstract : Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the pre- and postsurgical bone densities at alveolar and extra-alveolar sites following twojaw orthognathic surgery. Methods: The sample consisted of 10 patients (mean age, 23.2 years; range, 18.0?27.8 years; 8 males, 2 females) who underwent two-jaw orthognathic surgery. A three-dimensional imaging program (Invivo 5) was used with multidetector computed tomography images taken preand postoperatively (obtained 32.3 ± 6.0 days before surgery and 5.8 ± 2.6 days after surgery, respectively) for the measurement of bone densities at the following sites: (1) alveolar bone in the maxilla and mandible, (2) extra-alveolar sites, such as the top of the head, menton (Me), condyle, and the fourth cervical vertebrae (C4). Results: When pre- and postsurgical bone densities were compared, an overall tendency of decrease in bone density was noted. Statistically significant reductions were observed in the densities of cancellous bone at several areas of the maxillary alveolar bone; cortical and cancellous bone in most areas of the mandibular alveolar bone; cortical bone in Me; and cancellous bone in C4. There was no statistically significant difference in bone density in relation to the depth of the alveolar bone. In a comparison of the bone densities between groups with and without genioplasty, there was almost no statistically significant difference. Conclusions: Accelerated tooth movement following orthognathic surgery may be confirmed with reduced bone density. In addition, this study could offer insights into bone metabolism changes following orthognathic surgery, providing direction for further investigations in this field.

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    • Original Article l 2021-05-25

      Evaluation of strategic uprighting of the mandibular molars using an orthodontic miniplate and a nickel-titanium reverse curve arch wire: Preliminary cephalometric study

      Jae-Hyun Park , HyeRan Choo , Jin-Young Choi, Kyu-Rhim Chung, Seong-Hun Kim

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate the overall treatment effects in terms of the amount of uprighting with changes in the sagittal and vertical positions of mandibular molars after applying an orthodontic miniplate with a nickel-titanium (NiTi) reverse curve arch wire (biocreative reverse curve [BRC] system). Methods: A total of 30 female patients (mean age, 25.99 ± 8.96 years) were treated with the BRC system (mean BRC time, 10.3 ± 4.07 months). An I-shaped C-tube miniplate (Jin Biomed) was placed at the labial aspect for the alveolar bone of the mandibular incisors. A 0.017 × 0.025-inch NiTi reverse curve arch wire was engaged at the C-tube mini-plate anteriorly and the first and second premolars and molars posteriorly in the mandibular arch. Pre- and post-BRC lateral cephalograms were analyzed. A paired t-test was used to analyze the treatment effects of BRC. Results: The mandibular second molars were intrusively uprighted successfully by the BRC system. Distal uprighting with a controlled vertical dimension was noted on the first molars when they remained engaged in the BRC and the distal ends of the arch wire were laid on the second molars. The mandibular first and second premolars showed a slight extrusion. The changes in the mandibular incisors were unremarkable, while the mandibular molar angulation improved significantly. The lower occlusal plane rotated counterclockwise (MP-LOP: 1.13° ± 2.60°). Conclusions: The BRC system can provide very effective molar uprighting without compromising the position of the mandibular anterior teeth.

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    • Original Article l 2020-09-25

      Short-term treatment effects produced by rapid maxillary expansion evaluated with computed tomography: A systematic review with meta-analysis

      Antonino Lo Giudice , Paola Spinuzza, Lorenzo Rustico, Gabriele Messina, Riccardo Nucera

      Abstract : Objective: To identify the available evidence on the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) with three-dimensional imaging and provide meta-analytic data from studies assessing the outcomes using computed tomography. Methods: Eleven electronic databases were searched, and prospective case series were selected. Two authors screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full texts of the remaining articles. Seventeen case series were included in the quantitative synthesis. Seven outcomes were investigated: nasal cavity width, maxillary basal bone width, alveolar buccal crest width, alveolar palatal crest width, inter-molar crown width, inter-molar root apex width, and buccopalatal molar inclination. The outcomes were investigated at two-time points: postexpansion (2–6 weeks) and post-retention (4–8 months). Mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were used to summarize and combine the data. Results: All the investigated outcomes showed significant differences postexpansion (maxillary basal bone width, +2.46 mm; nasal cavity width, +1.95 mm; alveolar buccal crest width, +3.90 mm; alveolar palatal crest width, +3.09 mm; intermolar crown width, +5.69 mm; inter-molar root apex width, +2.85 mm; and dental tipping, +3.75°) and post-retention (maxillary basal bone width, +2.21 mm; nasal cavity width, +1.55 mm; alveolar buccal crest width, +3.57 mm; alveolar palatal crest width, +3.32 mm; inter-molar crown width, +5.43 mm; inter-molar root apex width, +4.75 mm; and dental tipping, 2.22°) compared to pre-expansion. Conclusions: After RME, skeletal expansion of the nasomaxillary complex was greater in most caudal structures. Maxillary basal bone showed 10% post-retention relapse. During retention period, uprighting of maxillary molars occurred.

      Abstract  
    • Case Report l 2020-05-25

      Surgical approach and orthodontic treatment of mandibular condylar osteochondroma

      So Jin Yang , Nam Hyung Chung, Jong Ghee Kim, Young-Mi Jeon

      Abstract : Osteochondroma is a common benign tumor of bones, but it is rare in the mandibular condyle. With its outgrowth it manifests clinically as deviation of the mandible limitation of mouth opening, and facial asymmetry. After the tumor is diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms and radiographic examination including cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) analysis, an appropriate surgery and treatment plan should be formulated. Herein, we present the case of a 44-year-old female patient who visited our dental hospital because her chin point had been deviating to the left side slowly but progressively over the last 3 years and she had difficulty masticating. Based on CBCT, she was diagnosed with skeletal Class III malocclusion accompanied by osteochondroma of the right mandibular condyle. Maxillary occlusal cant with the right side down was observed, but it was confirmed to be an extrusion of the molars associated with dental compensation. Therefore, after intrusion of the right molars with the use of temporary anchorage devices, sagittal split ramus osteotomy was used to remove the tumor and perform orthognathic surgery simultaneously. During 6 months after the surgery, continuous bone resorption and remodeling were observed in the condyle of the affected side, which led to a change in occlusion. During the postoperative orthodontic treatment, intrusive force and buccal torque were applied to the molars on the affected side, and a proper buccal overjet was created. After 18 months, CBCT revealed that the rate of bone absorption was continuously reduced, bone corticalization appeared, and good occlusion and a satisfying facial profile were achieved.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2020-11-25

      Innovative customized CAD/CAM nickel-titanium lingual retainer versus standard stainless-steel lingual retainer: A randomized controlled trial

      Emilie Gelin , Laurence Seidel, Annick Bruwier, Adelin Albert, Carole Charavet

      Abstract : Objective: To compare computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) customized nitinol retainers with standard stainlesssteel fixed retainers over a 12-month study period. Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted on 62 patients randomly allocated to a control group that received stainless-steel retainers or a test group that received customized CAD/CAM nickel-titanium retainers. Four time points were defined: retainer placement (T0) and 1-month (T1), 6-month (T2), and 12-month (T3) follow-up appointments. At each time point, Little’s irregularity index (LII) (primary endpoint) and dental stability measurements such as intercanine width were recorded in addition to assessment of periodontal parameters. Radiological measurements such as the incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) were recorded at T0 and T3. Failure events (wire integrity or debonding) were assessed at each time point. Results: From T0 to T3, LII and other dental measurements showed no significant differences between the two groups. The data for periodontal parameters remained stable over the study period, except for the gingival index, which was slightly, but significantly, higher in the test group at T3 (p = 0.039). The IMPA angle showed no intergroup difference. The two groups showed no significant difference in debonding events. Conclusions: This RCT conducted over a 12-month period demonstrated no significant difference between customized CAD/CAM nickel-titanium lingual retainers and standard stainlesssteel lingual retainers in terms of dental anterior stability and retainer survival. Both retainers eventually appeared to be equally effective in maintaining periodontal health.

      Abstract  
    • Case Report l 2020-07-25

      Camouflage treatment of posterior bite collapse in a patient with skeletal asymmetry by using posterior maxillary segmental osteotomy

      Haitham Badr , Soo-Yeon Lee, Hong-Sik Park, Joo-Young Ohe, Yoon-Goo Kang, Hyo-Won Ahn

      Abstract : Orthodontic treatment of posterior bite collapse due to early loss of molars and the consequent drift of adjacent teeth is complicated. When the posterior bite collapse occurs in patients with facial asymmetry, both transverse and vertical compensation are necessary for camouflage orthodontic treatment. In such cases, posterior maxillary segmental osteotomy (PMSO) can be an effective alternative procedure that simplifies the orthodontic treatment and shows long-term stability through dental compensation within the alveolar bone housing. This case report aimed to describe the orthodontic treatment of maxillary occlusal plane canting caused by severely extruded maxillary teeth in a patient with skeletal facial asymmetry that was corrected with PMSO along with protraction of the lower second molar to replace the space of the extracted first molar. The treatment duration was 18 months, and stable results were obtained after 2 years of retention.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-03-25

      Evaluation of a multi-stage convolutional neural network-based fully automated landmark identification system using cone-beam computed tomographysynthesized posteroanterior cephalometric images

      Min-Jung Kim , Yi Liu, Song Hee Oh, Hyo-Won Ahn, Seong-Hun Kim , Gerald Nelson

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of a multi-stage convolutional neural network (CNN) model-based automated identification system for posteroanterior (PA) cephalometric landmarks. Methods: The multi-stage CNN model was implemented with a personal computer. A total of 430 PA-cephalograms synthesized from cone-beam computed tomography scans (CBCT-PA) were selected as samples. Twenty-three landmarks used for Tweemac analysis were manually identified on all CBCT-PA images by a single examiner. Intra-examiner reproducibility was confirmed by repeating the identification on 85 randomly selected images, which were subsequently set as test data, with a two-week interval before training. For initial learning stage of the multi-stage CNN model, the data from 345 of 430 CBCT-PA images were used, after which the multi-stage CNN model was tested with previous 85 images. The first manual identification on these 85 images was set as a truth ground. The mean radial error (MRE) and successful detection rate (SDR) were calculated to evaluate the errors in manual identification and artificial intelligence (AI) prediction. Results: The AI showed an average MRE of 2.23 ± 2.02 mm with an SDR of 60.88% for errors of 2 mm or lower. However, in a comparison of the repetitive task, the AI predicted landmarks at the same position, while the MRE for the repeated manual identification was 1.31 ± 0.94 mm. Conclusions: Automated identification for CBCT-synthesized PA cephalometric landmarks did not sufficiently achieve the clinically favorable error range of less than 2 mm. However, AI landmark identification on PA cephalograms showed better consistency than manual identification.

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Journal Info.

November, 2021
Vol.51 No.6

Frequency: 6 times

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  • 1.372
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  • 1.737
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Clinical Journal of Korean Association of Orthodontists