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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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    • Original Article l 2021-07-25

      Root proximity of the anchoring miniscrews of orthodontic miniplates in the mandibular incisal area: Cone-beam computed tomographic analysis

      Do-Min Jeong , Song Hee Oh , HyeRan Choo, Yong-Suk Choi, Seong-Hun Kim, Jin-Suk Lee, Eui-Hwan Hwang

      Abstract : Objective: This outcome analysis study evaluated the actual positions of the orthodontic miniplate and miniplate anchoring screws (MPASs) and the risk factors affecting adjacent anatomic structures after miniplate placement in the mandibular incisal area. Methods: Cone-beam computed tomographic images of 97 orthodontic miniplates and their 194 MPASs (diameter, 1.5 mm; length, 4 mm) in patients whose miniplates provided sufficient clinical stability for orthodontic treatment were retrospectively reviewed. For evaluating the actual positions of the miniplates and analyzing the risk factors, including the effects on adjacent roots, MPAS placement height (PH), placement depth (PD), plate angle (PA), mental fossa angle (MA), and root proximity were assessed using the paired t-test, analysis of variance, and generalized linear model and regression analyses. Results: The mean PDs of MPASs at positions 1 (P1) and 2 (P2) were 2.01 mm and 2.23 mm, respectively. PA was significantly higher in the Class III malocclusion group than in the other groups. PH was positively correlated with MA and PD at P1. Of the 97 MPASs at P1, 49 were in the no-root area and 48 in the dentulous area; moreover, 19 showed a degree of root contact (19.6%) without root perforation. All MPASs at P2 were in the no-root area. Conclusions: Positioning the miniplate head approximately 1 mm lower than the mucogingival junction is highly likely to provide sufficient PH for the P1- MPASs to be placed in the no-root area.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-03-25

      Effect of micro-osteoperforations on external apical root resorption: A randomized controlled trial

      Azaitun Akma Shahrin , Sarah Haniza Abdul Ghani, Noraina Hafizan Norman

      Abstract : Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of micro-osteoperforations (MOPs) on external apical root resorption (EARR) during the initial orthodontic alignment phase of maxillary anterior crowding. Methods: Thirty patients (25 females, 5 males; mean age, 22.66 ± 3.27 years) who presented with moderate crowding of the upper labial segment and underwent extraction-based fixed appliance treatment were recruited. They were randomly allocated to receive adjunctive therapy with MOPs (n = 15) or treatment with fixed appliances only (control group; n = 15). EARR was measured from long-cone periapical radiographs taken at the start and the sixth month of treatment. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate EARR. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: The mean root lengths of 168 teeth were measured and showed no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) after six months of fixed appliance treatment in the MOP (mean difference [MD] = 0.13 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.10–0.35) and control group (MD = 0.14 mm; 95% CI = −0.10–0.37). Most of the roots in the MOP and control groups (42.86% and 52.38%, respectively) showed only mild resorption. Less than 8% of the roots in both groups (7.14% in the MOP group and 4.76% in the control group) showed moderate resorption. Conclusions: Acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement with adjunctive MOPs therapy during the alignment phase does not exacerbate EARR in patients with moderate crowding of the upper labial segment in comparison with controls.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-05-25

      Effectiveness of miniscrew assisted rapid palatal expansion using cone beam computed tomography: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Patchaya Siddhisaributr , Kornkanok Khlongwanitchakul, Niwat Anuwongnukroh, Somchai Manopatanakul, Nita Viwattanatipa

      Abstract : Objective: This study aims to examine the effectiveness of miniscrew assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE) treatment in late adolescents and adult patients using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: Literature search was conducted in five electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library) based on the PICOS keyword design focusing on MARPE. Out of the 18 CBCT screened outcomes, only nine parameters were sufficient for the quantitative meta-analysis. The parameters were classified into three main groups: 1) skeletal changes, 2) alveolar change, and 3) dental changes. Heterogeneity test, estimation of pooled means, publication bias, sensitivity analysis and risk of bias assessment were also performed. Results: Upon database searching, only 14 full-text articles were qualified from the 364 obtained results. Heterogeneity test indicated the use of the random-effects model. The pooled mean estimate were as follows: 1) Skeletal expansion: zygomatic width, 2.39 mm; nasal width, 2.68 mm; jugular width, 3.12 mm; and midpalatal suture at the posterior nasal spine and anterior nasal spine, 3.34 mm and 4.56 mm, respectively; 2) Alveolar molar width expansion, 4.80 mm; and 3) Dental expansion: inter-canine width, 3.96 mm; inter-premolar width, 4.99 mm and inter-molar width, 5.99 mm. The percentage of expansion demonstrated a skeletal expansion (PNS) of 55.76%, alveolar molar width expansion of 24.37% and dental expansion of 19.87%. Conclusions: In the coronal view, the skeletal and dental expansion created by MARPE was of the pyramidal pattern. MARPE could successfully expand the constricted maxilla in late adolescents and adult patients.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-03-25

      Relationship between rotational disc displacement of the temporomandibular joint and the dentoskeletal morphology

      So-Hyun Park , Won-Jeong Han, Dong-Hwa Chung, Jung-Sub An, Sug-Joon Ahn

      Abstract : Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between rotational disk displacement (DD) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the dentoskeletal morphology. Methods: Women aged > 17 years were included in this study. Each subject had a primary complaint of malocclusion and underwent routine cephalometric examinations. They were divided into five groups according to the findings on sagittal and coronal magnetic resonance images of their TMJs: bilateral normal disk position, bilateral anterior DD with reduction (ADDR), bilateral rotational DD with reduction (RDDR), bilateral anterior DD without reduction (ADDNR), and bilateral rotational DD without reduction (RDDNR). Twenty-three cephalometric variables were analyzed, and the Kruskal–Wallis test was used to evaluate differences in the dentoskeletal morphology among the five groups. Results: Patients with TMJ DD exhibited a hyperdivergent pattern with a retrognathic mandible, unlike those with a normal disk position. These specific skeletal characteristics were more severe in patients exhibiting DD without reduction than in those with reduction, regardless of the presence of rotational DD. Rotational DD significantly influenced horizontal and vertical skeletal patterns only in the stage of DD with reduction, and the mandible exhibited a more backward position and rotation in patients with RDDR than in those with ADDR. However, there were no significant dentoskeletal differences between ADDNR and RDDNR. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that rotational DD of TMJ plays an important role in the dentoskeletal morphology, particularly in patients showing DD with reduction.

      Abstract  
    • Reader's Forum l 2022-01-25

      READER’S FORUM

      Jin-Young Choi, Song Hee Oh, and Seong-Hun Kim
    • Original Article l 2021-11-25

      Impact of piezocision on orthodontic tooth movement

      Nikolaos Papadopoulos , Nicola Beindorff, Stefan Hoffmann, Paul-Georg Jost-Brinkmann, Thomas Michael Präger

      Abstract : Objective: This study investigated the impact of a single piezocision in the maxillary alveolar process on the speed of tooth movement. The null hypothesis was that the speed of tooth movement will be equal with and without piezocision. Methods: All maxillary molars on one side were moved against the combined incisors in 10 ten-week-old male Wistar rats. Under general anesthesia, a force of 25 cN was applied on either side using a Sentalloy closed coil spring. After placing the orthodontic appliance, vertical corticision was performed using a piezotome under local anesthesia, 2 mm mesial from the mesial root of the first molar on a randomly selected side; the other side served as the control. At the beginning of the treatment, and 2 and 4 weeks later, skull micro-computed tomography was performed. After image reconstruction, the distance between the mesial root of the first molar and the incisive canal, and the length of the mesial root of the first maxillary molar were measured. Moreover, the root resorption score was determined as described by Lu et al. Results: Significantly higher speed of tooth movement was observed on the corticision side; thus, the null hypothesis was rejected. The loss of root length and root resorption score were significantly more pronounced after piezocision than before. A strong correlation was observed between the speed of tooth movement and root resorption on the surgical side, but the control side only showed a weak correlation. Conclusions: Piezocision accelerates orthodontic tooth movement and causes increased root resorption.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-05-25

      Projected lifetime cancer risk from cone-beam computed tomography for orthodontic treatment

      Nayansi Jha , Yoon-Ji Kim , Youngjun Lee, Ju Young Lee, Won Jin Lee, Sang-Jin Sung

      Abstract : Objective: To estimate the projected cancer risk attributable to diagnostic cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed under different exposure settings for orthodontic purposes in children and adults. Methods: We collected a list of CBCT machines and their specifications from 38 orthodontists. Organ doses were estimated using median and maximum exposure settings of 105 kVp/156.8 mAs and 130 kVp/200 mAs, respectively. The projected cancer risk attributable to CBCT procedures performed 1–3 times within 2 years was calculated for children (aged 5 and 10 years) and adult (aged 20, 30, and 40 years) male and female patients. Results: For maximum exposure settings, the mean lifetime fractional ratio (LFR) was 14.28% for children and 0.91% for adults; this indicated that the risk to children was 16 times the risk to adults. For median exposure settings, the mean LFR was 5.25% and 0.58% for children and adults, respectively. The risk of cancer decreased with increasing age. For both median and maximum exposure settings, females showed a higher risk of cancer than did males in all age groups. Cancer risk increased with an increase in the frequency of CBCT procedures within a given period. Conclusions: The projected dental CBCT-associated cancer risk spans over a wide range depending on the machine parameters and image acquisition settings. Children and female patients are at a higher risk of developing cancer associated with diagnostic CBCT. Therefore, the use of diagnostic CBCT should be justified, and protective measures should be taken to minimize the harmful biological effects of radiation.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-01-25

      Evaluation of mandibular buccal shelf characteristics in the Colombian population: A cone-beam computed tomography study

      Natalia Escobar-Correa , Maria Antonia Ramírez-Bustamante, Luis Alejandro Sánchez-Uribe, Juan Carlos Upegui-Zea, Patricia Vergara-Villarreal, Diana Milena Ramírez-Ossa

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate the mandibular buccal shelf (MBS) in terms of the angulation and bone depth and thickness according to sex, age, and sagittal and vertical skeletal patterns in a Colombian population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Accordingly, the optimal site for miniscrew insertion in this area was determined. Methods: This descriptive, retrospective study included 64 hemi-arches of 34 patients. On CBCT images, the angulation, buccal bone depth (4 and 6 mm from the cementoenamel junction [CEJ] of MBS), and buccal bone thickness (6 and 11 mm from the CEJ of MBS) were measured at the mesial and distal roots of the mandibular first and second molars. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the angulation, depth, and thickness of MBS between male and female patients. The values for the bone around the distal root of the mandibular second molar were significantly greater than the other values. The osseous characteristics were significantly better in participants aged 16–24 years. Class III patients exhibited the best osseous characteristics, with the bone depth at 6 mm being significantly different from that in Class I and Class II patients. Although values tended to be greater in patients with low angles, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: MBS provides an optimal bone surface for miniscrew insertion, with better osseous characteristics at the distal root of the mandibular second molar, 4 mm from CEJ. Adolescent patients, Class III patients, and patients with a low angle exhibit the most favorable osseous characteristics in the MBS area.

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Clinical Journal of Korean Association of Orthodontists