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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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    • Original Article l 2021-05-25

      The effect of different micro-osteoperforation depths on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: A single-center, single-blind, randomized clinical trial

      Tugba Haliloglu Ozkan , Selim Arici

      Abstract : Objective: This study aimed to identify the clinical effectiveness of two different penetration depths of micro-osteoperforations (MOPs) on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. Methods: Twenty-four patients requiring the removal of the upper first premolar teeth were selected and randomly divided into two groups. The control group participants did not undergo MOPs. Participants in the experimental group underwent three MOPs each at 4-mm (MOP-4) and 7-mm (MOP-7) depths, which were randomly and equally performed to either the left or right side distal to the canine. The retraction amount was measured on three-dimensional digital models on the 28th day of retraction. MOP-related pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS). Between-group statistical differences in the VAS scores were determined using an independent t-test and those in canine retraction were determined using analysis of variance and posthoc Tukey test. Results: No significant difference was found between the MOP- 4 (1.22 ± 0.29 mm/month) and MOP-7 (1.29 ± 0.31 mm/month) groups in terms of the canine retraction rate. Moreover, both the groups demonstrated a significantly higher canine movement than the control group (0.88 ± 0.19 mm/ month). MOPs did not significantly affect the mesialization of the posterior teeth (p > 0.05). Moreover, the pain scores in the MOP-4 and MOP-7 groups were similar and showed no statistically significant difference. Conclusions: Three MOPs with a depth of 4 mm can be performed as an effective method to increase the rate of tooth movement. However, three MOPs with depths of 4–7 mm does not additionally enhance tooth movement.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-07-25

      Quantitative cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of hard and soft tissue thicknesses in the midpalatal suture region to facilitate orthodontic mini-implant placement

      Song-Hee Oh , Sae Rom Lee , Jin-Young Choi, Seong-Hun Kim , Eui-Hwan Hwang, Gerald Nelson

      Abstract : Objective: To identify the most favorable sites that optimize the initial stability and survival rate of orthodontic mini-implants, this study measured hard and soft tissue thicknesses in the median and paramedian regions of the palate using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and determined possible sexand age-related differences in these thicknesses. Methods: The study sample comprised CBCT images of 189 healthy subjects. The sample was divided into four groups according to age. A grid area was set for the measurement of hard and soft tissue thicknesses in the palate. Vertical lines were marked at intervals of 0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm lateral to the midpalatal suture, while horizontal lines were marked at 2-mm intervals up to 24 mm from the posterior margin of the incisive foramen. Measurements were made at 65 points of intersection between the horizontal and vertical lines. Results: The palatal hard tissue thickness decreased from the anterior to the posterior region, with a decrease in the medial-to-lateral direction in the middle and posterior regions. While the soft tissue was rather thick around the lateral aspects of the palatal arch, it formed a constant layer that was only 1–2-mm thick throughout the palate. Statistically significant differences were observed according to sex and age. Conclusions: The anterolateral palate as well as the midpalatal suture seem to be the most favorable sites for insertion of orthodontic mini-implants. The thickness of the palate differed by age and sex; these differences should be considered while planning the placement of orthodontic mini-implants.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-11-25

      Three-dimensional evaluation of the transfer accuracy of a bracket jig fabricated using computer-aided design and manufacturing to the anterior dentition: An in vitro study

      Jae-Hyun Park , Jin-Young Choi, Seong-Hun Kim , Su-Jung Kim, Kee-Joon Lee, Gerald Nelson

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of a one-piece bracket jig system fabricated using computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) by employing three-dimensional (3D) digital superimposition. Methods: This in vitro study included 226 anterior teeth selected from 20 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Bracket position errors from each of the 40 arches were analyzed quantitatively via 3D digital superimposition (best-fit algorithm) of the virtual bracket and actual bracket after indirect bonding, after accounting for possible variables that may affect accuracy, such as crowding and presence of the resin base. Results: The device could transfer the bracket accurately to the desired position of the patient’s dentition within a clinically acceptable range of ± 0.05 mm and 2.0° for linear and angular measurements, respectively. The average linear measurements ranged from 0.029 to 0.101 mm. Among the angular measurements, rotation values showed the least deviation and ranged from 0.396° to 0.623°. Directional bias was pronounced in the vertical direction, and many brackets were bonded toward the occlusal surface. However, no statistical difference was found for the three angular measurement values (torque, angulation, and rotation) in any of the groups classified according to crowding. When the teeth were moderately crowded, the mesio-distal, bucco-lingual, and rotation measurement values were affected by the presence of the resin base. Conclusions: The characteristics of the CAD/CAM one-piece jig system were demonstrated according to the influencing factors, and the transfer accuracy was verified to be within a clinically acceptable level for the indirect bracket bonding of anterior teeth.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-01-15

      Cephalometric Predictors of Future need for Orthognathic Surgery in Korean Patients with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Despite Long-term Use of Facemask with Miniplate

      Sang-Hun Yu , Seung-Hak Baek, Jin-Young Choi, Jong-Ho Lee, Sukwha Kim, Sung-Woon On

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate the cephalometric predictors of the future need for orthognathic surgery in Korean patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) despite long-term use of facemask with miniplate (FMMP). Methods: The sample consisted of 53 UCLP patients treated by a single orthodontist using an identical protocol. Lateral cephalograms were taken before commencement of FMMP therapy (T0; mean age, 10.45 years), after FMMP therapy (T1; mean age, 14.72 years), and at follow-up (T2; mean age, 18.68 years). Twenty-eight cephalometric variables were measured. At T2 stage, the subjects were divided into FMMP-Nonsurgery (n = 33, 62.3%) and FMMP-Surgery (n = 20, 37.7%) groups according to cephalometric criteria (point A-nasion-point B [ANB] < –3°; Wits-appraisal < –5 mm; and Harvold unit difference [HUD] > 34 mm for FMMP-Surgery group). Statistical analyses including discrimination analysis were performed. Results: In FMMP-Surgery group, the forward position of the mandible at T0 stage was maintained throughout the whole stages and Class III relationship worsened with significant growth of the mandibular body and ramus and counterclockwise rotation of the maxilla and mandible at the T1 and T2 stages. Six cephalometric variables at T0 stage including ANB, anteroposterior dysplasia indicator, Wits-appraisal, mandibular body length, HUD, and overjet were selected as effective predictors of the future need for surgical intervention to correct sagittal skeletal discrepancies. Conclusions: Despite long-term use of FMMP therapy, 37.7% of UCLP patients became candidates for orthognathic surgery. Therefore, differential diagnosis is necessary to predict the future need for orthognathic surgery at early age.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-07-25

      Does mini-implant-supported rapid maxillary expansion cause less root resorption than traditional approaches? A micro-computed tomography study

      Rukiye Alcin , Siddik Malkoç

      Abstract : Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the volume, amount, and localization of root resorption in the maxillary first premolars using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) after expansion with four different rapid maxillary expansion (RME) appliances. Methods: In total, 20 patients who required RME and extraction of the maxillary first premolars were recruited for this study. The patients were divided into four groups according to the appliance used: miniimplant- supported hybrid RME appliance, hyrax RME appliance, acrylic-bonded RME appliance, and full-coverage RME appliance. The same activation protocol (one activation daily) was implemented in all groups. For each group, the left and right maxillary first premolars were scanned using micro-CT, and each root were divided into six regions. Resorption craters in the six regions were analyzed using special CTAn software for direct volumetric measurements. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann–Whitney U test with Bonferroni adjustment. Results: The hybrid expansion appliance resulted in the lowest volume of root resorption and the smallest number of craters (p < 0.001). In terms of overall root resorption, no significant difference was found among the other groups (p > 0.05). Resorption was greater on the buccal surface than on the lingual surface in all groups except the hybrid appliance group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that all expansion appliances cause root resorption, with resorption craters generally concentrated on the buccal surface. However, the mini-implant-supported hybrid RME appliance causes lesser root resorption than do other conventional appliances.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-05-25

      Treatment of anterior open bites using non-extraction clear aligner therapy in adult patients

      Heeyeon Suh , Bella Shen Garnett, Kimberly Mahood, Noor Mahjoub, Robert L. Boyd, Heesoo Oh

      Abstract : Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and mechanism of clear aligner therapy for the correction of anterior open bite in adult nonextraction cases. Methods: Sixty-nine adult patients with anterior open bite were enrolled and classified into Angle’s Class I, II, and III groups. Fifty patients presented with skeletal open bite (mandibular plane angle [MPA] ≥ 38°), whereas 19 presented with dental open bite. Fifteen cephalometric landmarks were identified before (T1) and after (T2) treatment. The magnitudes of planned and actual movements of the incisors and molars were calculated. Results: Positive overbite was achieved in 94% patients, with a mean final overbite of 1.1 ± 0.8 mm. The mean change in overbite was 3.3 ± 1.4 mm. With clear aligners alone, 0.36 ± 0.58 mm of maxillary molar intrusion was achieved. Compared with the Class I group, the Class II group showed greater maxillary molar intrusion and MPA reduction. The Class III group showed greater mandibular incisor extrusion with no significant vertical skeletal changes. Conclusions: Clear aligners can be effective in controlling the vertical dimension and correcting mild to moderate anterior open bite in adult nonextraction cases. The treatment mechanism for Class III patients significantly differed from that for Class I and Class II patients. Maxillary incisor extrusion in patients with dental open bite and MPA reduction with mandibular incisor extrusion in patients with skeletal open bite are the most significant contributing factors for open bite closure.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-01-25

      Relationship between vertical components of maxillary molar and craniofacial frame in normal occlusion: cephalometric calibration on the vertical axis of coordinates

      Ah-Reum Han , Jongtae Kim , Il-Hyung Yang

      Abstract : Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the vertical position of maxillary first molar and vertical skeletal measurements in lateral cephalograms by using new linear measurements on the vertical axis of coordinates with calibration. Methods: The vertical position of maxillary first molar (U6-SN), and the conventionally used variables (ConV) and the newly derived linear variables (NwLin) for vertical skeletal patterns were measured in the lateral cephalograms of 103 Korean adults with normal occlusions. Pearson correlation analyses and multiple linear regression analyses were performed with and without calibration using the anterior and posterior cranial base (ACB and PCB, respectively) lengths to identify variables related to U6-SN. Results: The PCB-calibrated statistics showed the best power of explanation. ConV indicating skeletal hyperdivergency was significantly correlated with U6-SN. Six NwLin regarding the position of palatal plane were positively correlated with U6-SN. Each multiple linear regression analysis generated a two-variable model: sella and nasion to palatal plane. Among the three models, the PCBcalibrated model yielded highest adjusted R2 value, 0.880. Conclusions: U6-SN could be determined by the vertical position of the maxilla, which could then be used to plan the amount of molar intrusion and estimate its clinical stability. Cephalometric calibration on the vertical axis of coordinates by using PCB for vertical linear measurements could strengthen the analysis itself.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-09-25

      External apical root resorption 6 months after initiation of orthodontic treatment: A randomized clinical trial comparing fixed appliances and orthodontic aligners

      Katia Cristina Toyokawa-Sperandio , Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira Conti, Thais Maria Freire Fernandes, Renata Rodrigues de Almeida-Pedrin, Marcio Rodrigues de Almeida, Paula Vanessa Pedron Oltramari

      Abstract : Objective: To compare the magnitude of external apical root resorption (EARR) 6 months after starting orthodontic treatment using orthodontic aligners (OAs) and fixed appliances (FAs). Methods: This parallel randomized clinical trial included 40 patients randomized into two groups: OA group (n = 20, 160 incisors) and FA group (n = 20, 160 incisors). For evaluation of the tooth length, periapical radiographs and standardized linear measurements of the maxillary and mandibular incisors were acquired before (T0) and 6 months after treatment initiation (T1). EARR was calculated through the difference in length between the two time points (T1–T0). Statistical comparisons were performed by means of using t-tests, chi-squared test and covariance analysis (a = 5%). Results: Rounding of the root apex was observed in both groups; the resorption involved 2.88% of the root length, so 97.12% of the tooth length remained intact. Intragroup comparisons between the two time points revealed a significant difference, with (T1–T0) ranging from −0.52 to −0.88 mm in the FA group and from −0.52 to −0.85 mm in the OA group. In the intergroup comparisons, only tooth #21 presented a statistically significant difference (OA: −0.52 ± 0.57 mm, FA: −0.86 ± 0.60 mm); however, the overall differences between groups were not clinically relevant, ranging from 0.03 to 0.35 mm. Conclusions: OA and FA treatment resulted in a similar degree of EARR in the maxillary and mandibular incisors at 6 months after treatment initiation. However, the amount of resorption was small and does not impair tooth longevity.

      Abstract  

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