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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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    • Original Article l 2020-11-25

      Part I. What drives Korean adults to seek orthodontic treatment: Reliability and validity of a measurement instrument for the perception of orthodontic treatment

      Min-Hee Oh , Eun-A Kim , Ae-Hyun Park, MinSoo Kim, Jin-Hyoung Cho

      Abstract : Objective: To develop a standardized instrument to measure the level of cognition for orthodontic treatment in adults, and verify its reliability and validity for assessing perceptions of orthodontic treatment in adults. Methods: A total of 406 adults aged 19–64 years were surveyed by an internet research system. A tool was developed through the instrument development and verification stages. The data were analyzed by correlation analysis, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and Cronbach’s α test. Results: The instrument consisted of 11 items covering four factors related to orthodontic treatment. Three items were related to general perception, four described the perception of the treatment for adults, two related to the treatment effects, and two related to the retention of orthodontic treatment. In the reliability test, Cronbach’s α was 0.845 for the 11 items. In assessments for individual components, Cronbach’s α was 0.764 for the general perception of orthodontic treatment, 0.705 for the perception of this treatment for adults, 0.707 for the effects of the treatment, and 0.701 for the retention of orthodontic treatment. Finally, a measurement instrument for the perception of orthodontic treatment in adults was designed to assess the 11 items on a four-point Likert scale. Conclusions: This study developed a standard measurement instrument for assessing the perception of orthodontic treatment in adults. The proposed instrument will enable additional studies on the influence of an adult’s perception of orthodontic treatment on the decision to undergo treatment.

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    • Original Article l 2021-05-25

      Projected lifetime cancer risk from cone-beam computed tomography for orthodontic treatment

      Nayansi Jha , Yoon-Ji Kim , Youngjun Lee, Ju Young Lee, Won Jin Lee, Sang-Jin Sung

      Abstract : Objective: To estimate the projected cancer risk attributable to diagnostic cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed under different exposure settings for orthodontic purposes in children and adults. Methods: We collected a list of CBCT machines and their specifications from 38 orthodontists. Organ doses were estimated using median and maximum exposure settings of 105 kVp/156.8 mAs and 130 kVp/200 mAs, respectively. The projected cancer risk attributable to CBCT procedures performed 1–3 times within 2 years was calculated for children (aged 5 and 10 years) and adult (aged 20, 30, and 40 years) male and female patients. Results: For maximum exposure settings, the mean lifetime fractional ratio (LFR) was 14.28% for children and 0.91% for adults; this indicated that the risk to children was 16 times the risk to adults. For median exposure settings, the mean LFR was 5.25% and 0.58% for children and adults, respectively. The risk of cancer decreased with increasing age. For both median and maximum exposure settings, females showed a higher risk of cancer than did males in all age groups. Cancer risk increased with an increase in the frequency of CBCT procedures within a given period. Conclusions: The projected dental CBCT-associated cancer risk spans over a wide range depending on the machine parameters and image acquisition settings. Children and female patients are at a higher risk of developing cancer associated with diagnostic CBCT. Therefore, the use of diagnostic CBCT should be justified, and protective measures should be taken to minimize the harmful biological effects of radiation.

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    • Original Article l 2020-11-25

      Distribution, side involvement, phenotype and associated anomalies of Korean patients with craniofacial clefts from single university hospitalbased data obtained during 1998–2018

      Jee Hyeok Chung , Sunjin Yim, Il-Sik Cho, Seung-Weon Lim, Il-Hyung Yang, Jeong Hyun Ha, Sukwha Kim, Seung-Hak Baek

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate the distribution, side involvement, phenotype, and associated anomalies of Korean patients with craniofacial clefts (CFC). Methods: The samples consisted of 38 CFC patients, who were treated at Seoul National University Dental Hospital during 1998–2018. The Tessier cleft type, sex, side involvement, phenotype, and associated anomalies were investigated using nonparametric statistical analysis. Results: The three most common types were #7 cleft, followed by #0 cleft and #14 cleft. There was no difference between the frequency of male and female. Patients with #0 cleft exhibited nasal deformity, bony defect, and missing teeth in the premaxilla, midline cleft lip, and eye problems. A patient with #3 cleft (unilateral type) exhibited bilateral cleft lip and alveolus. All patients with #4 cleft were the bilateral type, including a combination of #3 and #4 clefts, and had multiple missing teeth. A patient with #5 cleft (unilateral type) had a posterior openbite. In patients with #7 cleft, the unilateral type was more prevalent than the bilateral type (87.0% vs. 13.0%, p < 0.001). Sixteen patients showed hemifacial microsomia (HFM), Goldenhar syndrome, and unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). There was a significant match in the side involvement of #7 cleft and HFM (87.5%, p < 0.01). Patients with #14 cleft had plagiocephaly, UCLP, or hyperterorbitism. A patient with #30 cleft exhibited tongue tie and missing tooth. Conclusions: Due to the diverse associated craniofacial anomalies in patients with CFC, a multidisciplinary approach involving a well-experienced cooperative team is mandatory for these patients.

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    • Original Article l 2021-03-25

      Effect of micro-osteoperforations on external apical root resorption: A randomized controlled trial

      Azaitun Akma Shahrin , Sarah Haniza Abdul Ghani, Noraina Hafizan Norman

      Abstract : Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of micro-osteoperforations (MOPs) on external apical root resorption (EARR) during the initial orthodontic alignment phase of maxillary anterior crowding. Methods: Thirty patients (25 females, 5 males; mean age, 22.66 ± 3.27 years) who presented with moderate crowding of the upper labial segment and underwent extraction-based fixed appliance treatment were recruited. They were randomly allocated to receive adjunctive therapy with MOPs (n = 15) or treatment with fixed appliances only (control group; n = 15). EARR was measured from long-cone periapical radiographs taken at the start and the sixth month of treatment. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate EARR. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: The mean root lengths of 168 teeth were measured and showed no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) after six months of fixed appliance treatment in the MOP (mean difference [MD] = 0.13 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.10–0.35) and control group (MD = 0.14 mm; 95% CI = −0.10–0.37). Most of the roots in the MOP and control groups (42.86% and 52.38%, respectively) showed only mild resorption. Less than 8% of the roots in both groups (7.14% in the MOP group and 4.76% in the control group) showed moderate resorption. Conclusions: Acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement with adjunctive MOPs therapy during the alignment phase does not exacerbate EARR in patients with moderate crowding of the upper labial segment in comparison with controls.

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    • Original Article l 2020-09-25

      Treatment modalities for Korean patients with unilateral hemifacial microsomia according to Pruzansky–Kaban types and growth stages

      Il-Hyung Yang , Jee Hyeok Chung , Sunjin Yim, Il-Sik Cho, Sukwha Kim, Jin-Young Choi, Jong-Ho Lee, Myung-Jin Kim, Seung-Hak Baek

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate the treatment modalities (Tx-Mods) for patients with unilateral hemifacial microsomia (UHFM) according to Pruzansky–Kaban types and growth stages. Methods: The samples consisted of 82 Korean UHFM patients. Tx-Mods were defined as follows: Tx-Mod-1, growth observation due to mild facial asymmetry; Tx-Mod-2, unilateral functional appliance; Tx- Mod-3, fixed orthodontic treatment; Tx-Mod-4, growth observation due to a definite need for surgical intervention; Tx-Mod-5, unilateral mandibular or bimaxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO); Tx-Mod-6, maxillary fixation using LeFort I osteotomy and mandibular DO/sagittal split ramus osteotomy; Tx- Mod-7, orthognathic surgery; and Tx-Mod-8, costochondral grafting. The type and frequency of Tx-Mod, the number of patients who underwent surgical procedures, and the number of surgeries that each patient underwent, were investigated. Results: The degree of invasiveness and complexity of Tx-Mod increased, with an increase in treatment stage and Pruzansky–Kaban type (initial < final; [I, IIa] < [IIb, III], all p < 0.001). The percentage of patients who underwent surgical procedures increased up to 4.2 times, with an increase in the Pruzansky–Kaban type (I, 24.1%; IIa, 47.1%; IIb, 84.4%; III, 100%; p < 0.001). However, the mean number of surgical procedures that each patient underwent showed a tendency of increase according to the Pruzansky–Kaban types (I, n = 1.1; IIa, n = 1.5; IIb, n = 1.6; III, n = 2.3; p > 0.05). Conclusions: These findings might be used as basic guidelines for successful treatment planning and prognosis prediction in UHFM patients.

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    • Original Article l 2021-03-25

      Full-arch accuracy of five intraoral scanners: In vivo analysis of trueness and precision

      Miran Kwon , Youngmok Cho, Dong-Wook Kim, MyungSu Kim, Yoon-Ji Kim , Minho Chang

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate the trueness and precision of full-arch scans acquired using five intraoral scanners and investigate the factors associated with the dimensional accuracy of the intraoral scan data. Methods: Nine adult participants (mean age, 34.3 ± 8.3 years) were recruited. Four zirconium spheres (Ø 6 mm) were bonded to the canines and the molars. Following acquisition of reference scans using an industrial-grade scanner, five intraoral scanners, namely i500, CS3600, Trios 3, iTero, and CEREC Omnicam, were used to scan the arches. Linear distances between the four reference spheres were automatically calculated, and linear mixed model analysis was performed to compare the trueness and precision of the intraoral scan data among the different scanners. Results: The absolute mean trueness and precision values for all intraoral scanners were 76.6 ± 79.3 and 56.6 ± 52.4 μm, respectively. The type of scanner and the measured linear distances had significant effects on the accuracy of the intraoral scan data. With regard to trueness, errors in the intermolar dimension and the distance from the canine to the contralateral molar were greater with Omnicam than with the other scanners. With regard to precision, the error in the linear distance from the canine to the molar in the same quadrant was greater with Omnicam and CS3600 than with the other scanners. Conclusions: The dimensional accuracy of intraoral scan data may differ significantly according to the type of scanner, with the amount of error in terms of trueness being clinically significant.

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    • Original Article l 2021-03-25

      Evaluation of a multi-stage convolutional neural network-based fully automated landmark identification system using cone-beam computed tomographysynthesized posteroanterior cephalometric images

      Min-Jung Kim , Yi Liu, Song Hee Oh, Hyo-Won Ahn, Seong-Hun Kim , Gerald Nelson

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of a multi-stage convolutional neural network (CNN) model-based automated identification system for posteroanterior (PA) cephalometric landmarks. Methods: The multi-stage CNN model was implemented with a personal computer. A total of 430 PA-cephalograms synthesized from cone-beam computed tomography scans (CBCT-PA) were selected as samples. Twenty-three landmarks used for Tweemac analysis were manually identified on all CBCT-PA images by a single examiner. Intra-examiner reproducibility was confirmed by repeating the identification on 85 randomly selected images, which were subsequently set as test data, with a two-week interval before training. For initial learning stage of the multi-stage CNN model, the data from 345 of 430 CBCT-PA images were used, after which the multi-stage CNN model was tested with previous 85 images. The first manual identification on these 85 images was set as a truth ground. The mean radial error (MRE) and successful detection rate (SDR) were calculated to evaluate the errors in manual identification and artificial intelligence (AI) prediction. Results: The AI showed an average MRE of 2.23 ± 2.02 mm with an SDR of 60.88% for errors of 2 mm or lower. However, in a comparison of the repetitive task, the AI predicted landmarks at the same position, while the MRE for the repeated manual identification was 1.31 ± 0.94 mm. Conclusions: Automated identification for CBCT-synthesized PA cephalometric landmarks did not sufficiently achieve the clinically favorable error range of less than 2 mm. However, AI landmark identification on PA cephalograms showed better consistency than manual identification.

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    • Original Article l 2021-07-25

      Root proximity of the anchoring miniscrews of orthodontic miniplates in the mandibular incisal area: Cone-beam computed tomographic analysis

      Do-Min Jeong , Song Hee Oh , HyeRan Choo, Yong-Suk Choi, Seong-Hun Kim, Jin-Suk Lee, Eui-Hwan Hwang

      Abstract : Objective: This outcome analysis study evaluated the actual positions of the orthodontic miniplate and miniplate anchoring screws (MPASs) and the risk factors affecting adjacent anatomic structures after miniplate placement in the mandibular incisal area. Methods: Cone-beam computed tomographic images of 97 orthodontic miniplates and their 194 MPASs (diameter, 1.5 mm; length, 4 mm) in patients whose miniplates provided sufficient clinical stability for orthodontic treatment were retrospectively reviewed. For evaluating the actual positions of the miniplates and analyzing the risk factors, including the effects on adjacent roots, MPAS placement height (PH), placement depth (PD), plate angle (PA), mental fossa angle (MA), and root proximity were assessed using the paired t-test, analysis of variance, and generalized linear model and regression analyses. Results: The mean PDs of MPASs at positions 1 (P1) and 2 (P2) were 2.01 mm and 2.23 mm, respectively. PA was significantly higher in the Class III malocclusion group than in the other groups. PH was positively correlated with MA and PD at P1. Of the 97 MPASs at P1, 49 were in the no-root area and 48 in the dentulous area; moreover, 19 showed a degree of root contact (19.6%) without root perforation. All MPASs at P2 were in the no-root area. Conclusions: Positioning the miniplate head approximately 1 mm lower than the mucogingival junction is highly likely to provide sufficient PH for the P1- MPASs to be placed in the no-root area.

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Journal Info.

November, 2021
Vol.51 No.6

Frequency: 6 times

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Journal Impact Factor

  • 1.372
    2020 IF

  • 1.737
    5-Year IF

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Clinical Journal of Korean Association of Orthodontists