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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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    • Case Report l 2019-03-25

      Treatment of Class I crowding using simple tubes bonded with customized resin coverings: A case report

      Seo-Rin Jeong, Hye-In Kim and Sung-Hoon Lim

      Abstract : As an alternative to the conventional fixed appliance that uses orthodontic brackets, a simple round tube without a bonding base can be bonded to the tooth surface by covering the tube with flowable resin. In this technique, bent wires cannot be inserted into the simple tubes; therefore, repositioning of the simple tubes is often required for adjustments. To reduce repositioning of simple tubes, a dome-shaped resin covering of the simple tube can be designed with a customized in-and-out compensation, using three-dimensional computer-aided design software based on digital simulation of orthodontic tooth movement. In the present case, the use of simple tubes bonded with customized resin coverings in a Class I nonextraction case is described in a 17-year-old male, in whom moderate crowding of the anterior teeth was treated over an 8-month period. This case shows that simple tubes can be used as an alternative to brackets in some Class I nonextraction cases, with the potential benefit of reducing decalcification.

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    • Original Article l 2020-11-25

      Characterization of dental phenotypes and treatment modalities in Korean patients with Parry–Romberg syndrome

      Sunjin Yim , Il-Hyung Yang, Seung-Hak Baek

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate the dental phenotypes and treatment modalities (Tx- Mod) in Korean patients with Parry–Romberg syndrome (PRS) using longitudinal data. Methods: The samples consisted of 10 PRS patients, who were treated and/or followed-up at Seoul National University Dental Hospital between 1998 and 2019. Using a novel PRS severity index based on the numbers of the atrophy-involved area and asymmetry-involved item, we classified them into mild (n = 3), moderate (n = 2), and severe (n = 5). Dental phenotypes, including congenitally missing tooth (Con-Missing-Tooth), microdontia, tooth with short root (Short-Root), tooth with dilacerated root, and delayed eruption/impacted tooth, were investigated along with Tx-Mod. Results: The side of occurrence of all dental phenotypes showed 100% concordance with the side of PRS involvement. The most two common dental phenotypes were Con-Missing- Tooth and Short-Root (n = 29 and n = 17 in six patients). The sums of the average number of Con-Missing-Tooth and Short-Root increased from mild PRS to moderate PRS and severe PRS cases (1.0, 6.0, and 6.2). In terms of Tx- Mod, growth observation due to mild atrophy, fixed orthodontic treatment, and grafting were used for mild PRS cases. Tx-Mod for moderate PRS cases involved growth observation for surgery due to an early age at the initial visit. For severe PRS cases, diverse Tx-Mod combinations including unilateral functional appliance, fixed orthodontic treatment, growth observation, grafting, and orthognathic surgery were used. Conclusions: The novel PRS severity index may be useful to provide primary data for individualized diagnosis and treatment planning for PRS patients.

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    • Original Article l 2020-03-25

      Sex-, growth pattern-, and growth status-related variability in maxillary and mandibular buccal cortical thickness and density

      Sydney Schneider, Vaibhav Gandhi, Madhur Upadhyay, Veerasathpurush Allareddy, Aditya Tadinada, and Sumit Yadav

      Abstract : ObjectiveThe primary objective of this study was to quantitatively analyze the bone parameters (thickness and density) at four different interdental areas from the distal region of the canine to the mesial region of the second molar in the maxilla and the mandible. The secondary aim was to compare and contrast the bone parameters at these specific locations in terms of sex, growth status, and facial type.MethodsThis retrospective cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) study reviewed 290 CBCT images of patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Cortical bone thickness in millimeters (mm) and density in pixel intensity value were measured for the regions (1) between the canine and first premolar, (2) between the first and second premolars, (3) between the second premolar and first molar, and (4) between the first and second molars. At each location, the bone thickness and density were measured at distances of 2, 6, and 10 mm from the alveolar crest.ResultsThe sex comparison (male vs. female) in cortical bone thickness showed no significant difference (p > 0.001). The bone density in growing subjects was significantly (p < 0.001) lower than that in non-growing subjects for most locations. There was no significant difference (p > 0.001) in bone parameters in relation to facial pattern in the maxilla and mandible for most sites.ConclusionsThere was no significant sex-related difference in cortical bone thickness. The buccal cortical bone density was higher in females than in males. Bone parameters were similar for subjects with hyperdivergent, hypodivergent, and normodivergent facial patterns.

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    • Original Article l 2021-01-25

      Relationship between vertical components of maxillary molar and craniofacial frame in normal occlusion: cephalometric calibration on the vertical axis of coordinates

      Ah-Reum Han , Jongtae Kim , Il-Hyung Yang

      Abstract : Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the vertical position of maxillary first molar and vertical skeletal measurements in lateral cephalograms by using new linear measurements on the vertical axis of coordinates with calibration. Methods: The vertical position of maxillary first molar (U6-SN), and the conventionally used variables (ConV) and the newly derived linear variables (NwLin) for vertical skeletal patterns were measured in the lateral cephalograms of 103 Korean adults with normal occlusions. Pearson correlation analyses and multiple linear regression analyses were performed with and without calibration using the anterior and posterior cranial base (ACB and PCB, respectively) lengths to identify variables related to U6-SN. Results: The PCB-calibrated statistics showed the best power of explanation. ConV indicating skeletal hyperdivergency was significantly correlated with U6-SN. Six NwLin regarding the position of palatal plane were positively correlated with U6-SN. Each multiple linear regression analysis generated a two-variable model: sella and nasion to palatal plane. Among the three models, the PCBcalibrated model yielded highest adjusted R2 value, 0.880. Conclusions: U6-SN could be determined by the vertical position of the maxilla, which could then be used to plan the amount of molar intrusion and estimate its clinical stability. Cephalometric calibration on the vertical axis of coordinates by using PCB for vertical linear measurements could strengthen the analysis itself.

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    • Original Article l 2019-09-25

      Effects of pre-applied orthodontic force on the regeneration of periodontal tissues in tooth replantation

      Won-Young Park, Min Soo Kim, Min-Seok Kim, Min-Hee Oh, Su-Young Lee, Sun-Hun Kim, and Jin-Hyoung Cho

      Abstract : ObjectiveThis study aimed to investigate the effect of pre-applied orthodontic force on the regeneration of periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues and the underlying mechanisms in tooth replantation.MethodsOrthodontic force (50 cN) was applied to the left maxillary first molars of 7-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 32); the right maxillary first molars were left untreated to serve as the control group. After 7 days, the first molars on both sides were fully luxated and were immediately replanted in their original sockets. To verify the effects of the pre-applied orthodontic force, we assessed gene expression by using microarray analysis and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cell proliferation by using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunofluorescence staining, and morphological changes by using histological analysis.ResultsApplication of orthodontic force for 7 days led to the proliferation of PDL tissues, as verified on microarray analysis and PCNA staining. Histological analysis after replantation revealed less root resorption, a better arrangement of PDL fibers, and earlier regeneration of periodontal tissues in the experimental group than in the control group. For the key genes involved in periodontal tissue remodeling, including CXCL2, CCL4, CCL7, MMP3, PCNA, OPG, and RUNX2, quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that messenger RNA levels were higher at 1 or 2 weeks in the experimental group.ConclusionsThese results suggest that the application of orthodontic force prior to tooth replantation enhanced the proliferation and activities of PDL cells and may lead to higher success rates with fewer complications.

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    • Original Article l 2019-05-25

      Relationship between the maxillofacial skeletal pattern and the morphology of the mandibular symphysis: Structural equation modeling

      Mi So Ahn, Sang Min Shin, Tetsutaro Yamaguchi, Koutaro Maki, Te-Ju Wu, Ching-Chang Ko, and Yong-Il Kim

      Abstract : ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the facial skeletal patterns and the shape of the mandibular symphysis in adults with malocclusion by using a structural equation model (SEM).MethodsNinety adults who had malocclusion and had records of facial skeletal measurements performed using cone-beam computed tomography were selected for this study. The skeletal measurements were classified into three groups (vertical, anteroposterior, and transverse). Cross-sectional images of the mandibular symphysis were analyzed using generalized Procrustes and principal component (PC) analyses. A SEM was constructed after the factors were extracted via factor analysis.ResultsTwo factors were extracted from the transverse, vertical, and anteroposterior skeletal measurements. Latent variables were extracted for each factor. PC1, PC2, and PC3 were selected to analyze the variations of the mandibular symphyseal shape. The SEM was constructed using the skeletal variables, PCs, and latent variables. The SEM showed that the vertical latent variable exerted the most influence on the mandibular symphyseal shape.ConclusionsThe relationship between the skeletal pattern and the mandibular symphysis was analyzed using a SEM, which showed that the vertical facial skeletal pattern had the highest effect on the shape of the mandibular symphysis.

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    • Case Report l 2020-03-25

      Growth observation and orthodontic treatment of a hemifacial microsomia patient treated with distraction osteogenesis

      Nam Hyung Chung, So Jin Yang, Jae Yoen Kang, Young-Mi Jeon, and Jong Ghee Kim

      Abstract : Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) patients may experience emotional withdrawal during their growth period due to their abnormal facial appearance. Distraction osteogenesis at an early age to improve their appearance can encourage these patients. Some abnormalities of the affected side can be overcome by distraction osteogenesis at an early age. However, differences in the growth rate between the affected and unaffected sides during the rest of the growth period are inevitable due to the characteristics of HFM. Therefore, re-evaluation should be performed after completion of growth in order to achieve stable occlusion through either orthognathic surgery or camouflage orthodontic treatment. An eight-year-old patient visited the clinic exhibiting features of HFM with slight mandibular involvement. He received phase I treatment with distraction osteogenesis and a functional appliance. Distraction osteogenesis was performed at the right ramus, which resulted in an open bite at the right posterior dentition. After distraction osteogenesis, a functional appliance and partial fixed appliance were used to achieve extrusion of the affected posterior dentition and settlement of the occlusion adjustment on the unaffected posterior dentition. The patient visited the clinic regularly for follow-up assessments, and at the age of 20 years, he showed facial asymmetry of the mandible, which had deviated to the right side. He received orthodontic treatment to improve the occlusion of his posterior dentition after the growth period. Without orthognathic surgery, stable occlusion and a satisfactory facial appearance were obtained through camouflage orthodontic treatment.

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    • Original Article l 2019-11-25

      Bracket bonding to polymethylmethacrylate-based materials for computer-aided design/manufacture of temporary restorations: Influence of mechanical treatment and chemical treatment with universal adhesives

      Cecilia Goracci, Mutlu Özcan, Lorenzo Franchi, Giuseppe Di Bello, Chris Louca, and Alessandro Vichi

      Abstract : ObjectiveTo assess shear bond strength and failure mode (Adhesive Remnant Index, ARI) of orthodontic brackets bonded to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) blocks for computer-aided design/manufacture (CAD/CAM) fabrication of temporary restorations, following substrate chemical or mechanical treatment.MethodsTwo types of PMMA blocks were tested: CAD-Temp® (VITA) and Telio® CAD (Ivoclar-Vivadent). The substrate was roughened with 320-grit sandpaper, simulating a fine-grit diamond bur. Two universal adhesives, Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SU) and Assure Plus (AP), and a conventional adhesive, Transbond XT Primer (XTP; control), were used in combination with Transbond XT Paste to bond the brackets. Six experimental groups were formed: (1) CADTemp®/SU; (2) CAD-Temp®/AP; (3) CAD-Temp®/XTP; (4) Telio® CAD/SU; (5) Telio® CAD/AP; (6) Telio® CAD/XTP. Shear bond strength and ARI were assessed. On 1 extra block for each PMMA-based material surfaces were roughened with 180-grit sandpaper, simulating a normal/medium-grit (100 mm) diamond bur, and brackets were bonded. Shear bond strengths and ARI scores were compared with those of groups 3, 6.ResultsOn CAD-Temp® significantly higher bracket bond strengths than on Telio® CAD were recorded. With XTP significantly lower levels of adhesion were reached than using SU or AP. Roughening with a coarser bur resulted in a significant increase in adhesion.ConclusionsBracket bonding to CAD/CAM PMMA can be promoted by grinding the substrate with a normal/medium-grit bur or by coating the intact surface with universal adhesives. With appropriate pretreatments, bracket adhesion to CAD/CAM PMMA temporary restorations can be enhanced to clinically satisfactory levels.

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    • Original Article l 2019-03-25

      In-vitro assessment of the accuracy and reliability of mandibular dental model superimposition based on voxel-based cone-beam computed tomography registration

      Gaofeng Han, Jing Li, Shuo Wang, Yan Liu, Xuedong Wang, and Yanheng Zhou

      Abstract : ObjectiveThis study was performed to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of a newly designed method to achieve mandibular dental model superimposition, using voxel-based cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) registration.MethodsFourteen dry cadaveric mandibles and six teeth extracted from patients with severe periodontitis were used to establish 14 orthodontic tooth-movement models. The protocol consisted of two steps: in the first step, voxel-based CBCT mandible superimposition was performed; the reference comprised the external portion of the symphysis, extending to the first molar. The laser-scanned dental model image was then integrated with the CBCT image to achieve mandibular dental model superimposition. The entire process required approximately 10 minutes. Six landmarks were assigned to the teeth to measure tooth displacement, using tooth displacement on the superimposed laser-scanned mandibles as the reference standard. Accuracy was evaluated by comparing differences in tooth displacement based on the method and the reference standard. Two observers performed superimposition to evaluate reliability.ResultsFor three-dimensional tooth displacements, the differences between the method and the reference standard were not significant in the molar, premolar, or incisor groups (p > 0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficients for the inter- and intra-observer reliabilities of all measurements were > 0.92.ConclusionsOur method of mandibular dental model superimposition based on voxel registration is accurate, reliable, and can be performed within a reasonable period of time in vitro, demonstrating a potential for use in orthodontic patients.

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Journal Info.

January, 2021
Vol.51 No.1

Frequency: 6 times

Journal Impact Factor

  • 1.476
    2018 IF

  • 1.523
    5-Year IF

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Clinical Journal of Korean Association of Orthodontists