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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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    • Original Article l 2022-03-25

      Characterization of facial asymmetry phenotypes in adult patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion using three-dimensional computed tomography and cluster analysis

      Sang-Woon Ha , Su-Jung Kim , Jin-Young Choi , Seung-Hak Baek

      Abstract : Objective: To classify facial asymmetry (FA) phenotypes in adult patients with skeletal Class III (C-III) malocclusion. Methods: A total of 120 C-III patients who underwent orthognathic surgery (OGS) and whose three-dimensional computed tomography images were taken one month prior to OGS were evaluated. Thirty hard tissue landmarks were identified. After measurement of 22 variables, including cant (°, mm), shift (mm), and yaw (°) of the maxilla, maxillary dentition (Max-dent), mandibular dentition, mandible, and mandibular border (Man-border) and differences in the frontal ramus angle (FRA, °) and ramus height (RH, mm), K-means cluster analysis was conducted using three variables (cant in the Max-dent [mm] and shift [mm] and yaw [°] in the Man-border). Statistical analyses were conducted to characterize the differences in the FA variables among the clusters. Results: The FA phenotypes were classified into five types: 1) non-asymmetry type (35.8%); 2) maxillary-cant type (14.2%; severe cant of the Max-dent, mild shift of the Man-border); 3) mandibular-shift and yaw type (16.7%; moderate shift and yaw of the Man-border, mild RH-difference); 4) complex type (9.2%; severe cant of the Max-dent, moderate cant, severe shift, and severe yaw of the Man-border, moderate differences in FRA and RH); and 5) maxillary reverse-cant type (24.2%; reverse-cant of the Max-dent). Strategic decompensation by pre-surgical orthodontic treatment and considerations for OGS planning were proposed according to the FA phenotypes. Conclusions: This FA phenotype classification may be an effective tool for differential diagnosis and surgical planning for Class III patients with FA.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-01-25

      Proposed parameters of optimal central incisor positioning in orthodontic treatment planning: A systematic review

      Linda Sangalli , Domenico Dalessandri, Stefano Bonetti, Gualtiero Mandelli, Luca Visconti, Fabio Savoldi

      Abstract : Objective: Planning of incisal position is crucial for optimal orthodontic treatment outcomes due to its consequences on facial esthetics and occlusion. A systematic summary of the proposed parameters is presented. Methods: Studies on Google Scholar©, PubMed©, and Cochrane Library, providing quantitative information on optimal central incisor position were included. Results: Upper incisors supero-inferior position (4–5 mm to upper lip, 67–73 mm to axial plane through pupils), antero-posterior position (3–4 mm to Nasion-A, 3–6 mm to A-Pogonion, 9–12 mm to true vertical line, 5 mm to A-projection, 9–10 mm to coronal plane through pupils), bucco-lingual angulation (4–7° to occlusal plane perpendicular on models, 20–22° to Nasion-A, 57–58° to upper occlusal plane, 16–20° to coronal plane through pupils, 108–110° to anterior-posterior nasal spine), mesio-distal angulation (5° to occlusal plane perpendicular on models). Lower incisors supero-inferior position (41–48 mm to soft-tissue mandibular plane), antero-posterior position (3–4 mm to Nasion-B, 1–3 mm to A-Pogonion, 12–15 mm to true vertical line, 6–8 mm to coronal plane through pupils), bucco-lingual angulation (1-4° to occlusal plane perpendicular on models, 87–94° to mandibular plane, 68° to Frankfurt plane, 22–25° to Nasion-B, 105° to occlusal plane, 64° to lower occlusal plane, 21° to A-Pogonion), mesio-distal angulation (2° to occlusal plane perpendicular on models). Conclusions: Although these findings can provide clinical guideline, they derive from heterogeneous studies in terms of subject characteristics and reference methods. Therefore, the optimal incisal position remains debatable.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-01-25

      The global distribution of permanent canine hypodontia: A systematic review

      Saritha Sivarajan , Shani Ann Mani, Jacob John, Mona M. Salah Fayed, Yoon-Ah Kook, Mang Chek Wey

      Abstract : Objective: To systematically review studies on canine agenesis prevalence in different populations and continents, based on the jaw, sex, location, and associated dental anomalies. Methods: Electronic and hand searches of English literature in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, OpenGrey, and Science Direct were conducted, and the authors were contacted when necessary. Observational studies (population-based, hospital/clinic-based, and cross-sectional) were included. For study appraisal and synthesis, duplicate selection was performed independently by two reviewers. Study quality was assessed using a modified Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist, with main outcome of prevalence of canine agenesis. Results: The global population prevalence of canine agenesis was 0.30% (0.0−4.7%), highest in Asia (0.54%), followed by Africa (0.33%), and the least in Europe and South America (0.19% in both continents). Canine agenesis was more common in the maxilla (88.57%), followed by both maxilla and mandible (8.57%), and the least common was mandible-only presentation (2.86%). The condition was more common in females (female:male ratio = 1.23), except in Asia (female:male ratio = 0.88) and Africa (female:male ratio = 1). In Asia, unilateral agenesis was almost twice as prevalent as bilateral, but in Europe, the bilateral form was more common. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of canine agenesis is 0.30%, with the highest prevalence in Asia, followed by Africa, Europe, and South America. The condition is more common in the maxilla than the mandible, and in females than males (except in Asia and Africa), with unilateral agenesis being more common in Asia and the bilateral form showing a greater prevalence in Europe.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-09-25

      Effectiveness of low-level laser therapy and chewing gum in reducing orthodontic pain: A randomized controlled trial

      Fatih Celebi , Ali Altug Bicakci, Ufuk Kelesoglu

      Abstract : Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chewing gum and low-level laser therapy in alleviating orthodontic pain induced by the initial archwire. Methods: Patients with 3–6 mm maxillary crowding who planned to receive non-extraction orthodontic treatment were recruited for the study. Sixty-three participants (33 females and 30 males) were randomly allocated into three groups: laser, chewing gum, and control. In the laser group, a gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser with a wavelength of 820 nm was used to apply a single dose immediately after orthodontic treatment began. In the chewing gum group, sugar-free gum was chewed three times for 20 minutes— immediately after starting treatment, and at the twenty-fourth and forty-eighth hours of treatment. Pain perception was measured using a visual analog scale at the second, sixth, and twenty-fourth hours, and on the second, third, and seventh days. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups at any measured time point (p > 0.05). The highest pain scores were detected at the twenty-fourth hour of treatment in all groups. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study, we could not detect whether low-level laser therapy and chewing gum had any clinically significant effect on orthodontic pain. Different results may be obtained with a higher number of participants or using lasers with different wavelengths and specifications. Although the study had a sufficient number of participants according to statistical analysis, higher number of participants could have provided more definitive outcomes.

      Abstract  
    • Case Report l 2022-05-25

      Maxillary space closure using a digital manufactured Mesialslider in a single appointment workflow

      Lynn Wilhelmy , Jan H. Willmann, Nour Eldin Tarraf, Benedict Wilmes, Dieter Drescher

      Abstract : New digital technologies, many involving three-dimensional printing, bring benefits for clinical applications. This article reports on the clinical procedure and fabrication of a skeletally anchored mesialization appliance (Mesialslider) using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for space closure of a congenitally missing lateral incisor in a 12-year-old female patient. The insertion of the mini-implants and appliance was performed in a single appointment. Bodily movement of the molars was achieved using the Mesialslider. Anchorage loss, such as deviation of the anterior midline or palatal tilting of the anterior teeth, was completely avoided. CAD/CAM facilitates safe and precise insertion of mini-implants. Further, mini-implants can improve patient comfort by reducing the number of office visits and eliminating the need for orthodontic bands and physical impressions.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2021-09-25

      Chewing gum as a non-pharmacological alternative for orthodontic pain relief: A randomized clinical trial using an intention-to-treat analysis

      Diego Junior da, Silva Santos, Jonas Capelli Jr.

      Abstract : Objective: To compare the effectiveness of ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and chewing gum for orthodontic pain relief and to assess if chewing gum can be a non-pharmacological alternative for orthodontic pain relief. Methods: The study enrolled 106 patients of both sexes, aged ≥ 12 years, with body weight > 50 kg, and mild-to-moderate dental crowding in the upper arch. After randomization and allocation concealment, the intervention groups were either administered with ibuprofen (400 mg) or acetaminophen (500 mg) or chewed sugar-free chewing gum immediately after initial archwire placement and every 6 hours for 1 week if the pain persisted. The control group did not receive any pain relief. The pain was assessed on a 100-mm visual analog scale at rest and while biting down at T1 (2 hours), T2 (24 hours), T3 (2 days), T4 (3 days), T5 (7 days), and T6 (21 days). Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal–Wallis and post-hoc Mann–Whitney U tests (α = 0.05). Results: The chewing gum group experienced more pain relief than the ibuprofen group at while biting down at T3 (p = 0.04) and at rest at T4 (p < 0.001). The chewing gum group reported more pain relief than the acetaminophen and control groups while biting down at T3 (p = 0.03 and p = 0.0006, respectively) and T4 (both p < 0.001). Conclusions: Chewing gum can be a non-pharmacological alternative for orthodontic pain relief at 2 and 3 days after initial archwire placement.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-03-25

      Use of automated artificial intelligence to predict the need for orthodontic extractions

      Alberto Del Real , Octavio Del Real, Sebastian Sardina, Rodrigo Oyonarte

      Abstract : Objective: To develop and explore the usefulness of an artificial intelligence system for the prediction of the need for dental extractions during orthodontic treatments based on gender, model variables, and cephalometric records. Methods: The gender, model variables, and radiographic records of 214 patients were obtained from an anonymized data bank containing 314 cases treated by two experienced orthodontists. The data were processed using an automated machine learning software (Auto-WEKA) and used to predict the need for extractions. Results: By generating and comparing several prediction models, an accuracy of 93.9% was achieved for determining whether extraction is required or not based on the model and radiographic data. When only model variables were used, an accuracy of 87.4% was attained, whereas a 72.7% accuracy was achieved if only cephalometric information was used. Conclusions: The use of an automated machine learning system allows the generation of orthodontic extraction prediction models. The accuracy of the optimal extraction prediction models increases with the combination of model and cephalometric data for the analytical process.

      Abstract  
    • Case Report l 2021-11-25

      A modified presurgical alveolar molding technique for treatment of cleft in Down syndrome

      Merve Gonca , Mehmet Birol Ozel

      Abstract : Craniofacial clefts are extremely rare deformities. Tessier’s classification is a widely accepted system that is based on clinical, radiographical, and surgical observations. The Tessier No. 0 cleft most commonly affects the upper lip, nose, and palate. This case presentation aims to report the outcome of a modified presurgical alveolar molding (PAM) appliance used in the treatment of an infant with Tessier No. 0 cleft as an alternate approach to mold such defects before surgery. The modified PAM appliance consisted of reciprocal parts connected by a helix. The segments were approximated by stripping the appliance at the midline in a V-shaped manner and the force was exerted by the extraoral elastics. The procedure gave results in 8 weeks, which may be regarded as a reasonable duration. The anterior cleft gap, which was 13 mm before the treatment, was reduced to 3 mm after the treatment by using modified PAM appliance. On a 21-month follow-up period, oral reshaping was regarded successful due to stability of the improved oral mold.

      Abstract  
    • Reader's Forum l 2022-07-25

      READER’S FORUM

      Jaehyun Kim and Jiyoung Oh
    • Case Report l 2022-07-25

      Conservative orthodontic treatment for severe pathologic migration following total glossectomy: A case report

      Hai-Van Giap , Ji Yoon Jeon , Kee Deog Kim, Kee-Joon Lee

      Abstract : Glossectomy combined with radiotherapy causes different levels of tongue function disorders and leads to severe malocclusion, with poor periodontal status in cancer survivors. Although affected patients require regular access to orthodontic care, special considerations are crucial for treatment planning. This case report describes the satisfactory orthodontic management for the correction of severe dental crowding in a 43-year-old female 6 years after treatment for tongue cancer with total glossectomy combined with radiotherapy, to envision the possibility of orthodontic care for oral cancer survivors. Extraction was performed to correct dental crowding and establish proper occlusion following alignment, after considering the possibility of osteoradionecrosis. Orthodontic mini-implants were used to provide skeletal anchorage required for closure of the extraction space and intrusion of the anterior teeth. The dental crowding was corrected, and Class I occlusal relationship was established after 36 months of treatment. The treatment outcome was sustained after 15 months of retention, and long-term follow-up was recommended.

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Clinical Journal of Korean Association of Orthodontists