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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

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    • Review Article l 2023-11-25

      Managing oral biofilms to avoid enamel demineralization during fixed orthodontic treatment

      Jung-Sub An , Bum-Soon Lim, Sug-Joon Ahn

      Abstract : Enamel demineralization represents the most prevalent complication arising from fixed orthodontic treatment. Its main etiology is the development of cariogenic biofilms formed around orthodontic appliances. Ordinarily, oral biofilms exist in a dynamic equilibrium with the host's defense mechanisms. However, the equilibrium can be disrupted by environmental changes, such as the introduction of a fixed orthodontic appliance, resulting in a shift in the biofilm’s microbial composition from non-pathogenic to pathogenic. This alteration leads to an increased prevalence of cariogenic bacteria, notably mutans streptococci, within the biofilm. This article examines the relationships between oral biofilms and orthodontic appliances, with a particular focus on strategies for effectively managing oral biofilms to mitigate enamel demineralization around orthodontic appliances.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2023-01-25

      Does surgically assisted maxillary protraction with skeletal anchorage and Class III elastics affect the pharyngeal airway? A retrospective, long-term study

      Elvan Onem Ozbilen , Petros Papaefthymiou, Hanife Nuray Yilmaz, Nazan Küçükkeleş

      Abstract : Objective: Surgically assisted maxillary protraction is an alternative protocol in severe Class III cases or after the adolescent growth spurt involving increased maxillary advancement. Correction of the maxillary deficiency has been suggested to improve pharyngeal airway dimensions. Therefore, this retrospective study aimed to analyze the airway changes cephalometrically following surgically assisted maxillary protraction with skeletal anchorage and Class III elastics. Methods: The study population consisted of 15 Class III patients treated with surgically assisted maxillary protraction combined with skeletal anchorage and Class III elastics (mean age: 12.9 ± 1.2 years). Growth changes were initially assessed for a mean of 5.5 ± 1.6 months prior to treatment. Airway and skeletal changes in the control (T0), pre-protraction (T1), post-protraction (T2), and follow-up (T3) periods were monitored and compared using lateral cephalometric radiographs. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The skeletal or airway parameters showed no statistically significant changes during the control period. Sella to nasion angle, N perpendicular to A, Point A to Point B angle, and Frankfort plane to mandibular plane angle increased significantly during the maxillary protraction period (p < 0.05), but no significant changes were observed in airway parameters (p > 0.05). No statistically significant changes were observed in the airway parameters in the follow-up period either. However, Sella to Gonion distance increased significantly (p < 0.05) during the follow-up period. Conclusions: No significant changes in pharyngeal airway parameters were found during the control, maxillary protraction, and follow-up periods. Moreover, the significant increases in the skeletal parameters during maxillary protraction were maintained in the long-term.

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    • Original Article l 2023-07-25

      A novel method for testing accuracy of bite registration using intraoral scanners

      Lydia Kakali , Demetrios J. Halazonetis

      Abstract : Objective: The evidence on the accuracy of bite registration using intraoral scanners is sparse. This study aimed to develop a new method for evaluating bite registration accuracy using intraoral scanners. Methods: Two different types of models were used; 10 stone models and 10 with acrylic resin teeth. A triangular frame with cylindrical posts at each apex (one anterior and two posteriors) was digitally designed and manufactured using three-dimensional (3D) printing. Such a structure was fitted in the lingual space of each maxillary and mandibular model so that, in occlusion, the posts would contact their opposing counterparts, enforcing a small interocclusal gap between the two arches. This ensured no tooth interference and full contact between opposing posts. Bite registration accuracy was evaluated by measuring the distance between opposing posts, with small values indicating high-accuracy. Three intraoral scanners were used: Medit i500, Primescan, and Trios 4. Viewbox software was used to measure the distance between opposing posts and compute roll and pitch. Results: The average maximum error in interocclusal registration exceeded 50 μm. Roll and pitch orientation errors ranged above 0.1 degrees, implying an additional interocclusal error of around 40 μm or more. The models with acrylic teeth exhibited higher errors. Conclusions: A method that avoids the need for reference hardware and the imprecision of locating reference points on tooth surfaces, and offers simplicity in the assessment of bite registration with an intraoral scanner, was developed. These results suggest that intraoral scanners may exhibit clinically significant errors in reproducing the interocclusal relationships.

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    • Original Article l 2023-05-25

      Micro-computed tomography evaluation of the effects of orthodontic force on immature maxillary first molars and alveolar bone mineral density of Sprague–Dawley rats

      Jingwei Wang , Ruofang Zhang , Zhuoying Zhang, Chao Geng, Yanpeng Zhang

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate changes in the immature teeth of Sprague–Dawley rats during orthodontic treatment and to explore the changes in the peri-radicular alveolar bone through micro-computed tomography (CT). Methods: Twenty-five 26-day-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were included. The maxillary left first molar was moved mesially under a continuous force of 30 cN, and the right first molar served as the control. After orthodontic treatment for 7, 14, 21, 28, and 42 days, the root length, tooth volume, and alveolar bone mineral density (BMD) around the mesial root were measured through micro-CT. Results: The immature teeth continued to elongate after application of orthodontic force. The root length on the force side was significantly smaller than that on the control side, whereas the differences in the volume change between both sides were not statistically significant. Alveolar bone in the coronal part of the compression and tension sides showed no difference in BMD between the experimental and control groups. The BMD of the experimental group decreased from day 14 to day 42 in the apical part of the compression side and increased from day 7 to day 42 in the apical part of the tension side. The BMD of the experimental group decreased in the root apex part on day 7. Conclusions: The root length and volume of immature teeth showed continued development under orthodontic forces. Alveolar bone resorption was observed on the compression side, and bone formation was observed on the tension side.

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    • Original Article l 2024-03-25

      Cone-beam computed tomographic evaluation of mandibular incisor alveolar bone changes for the intrusion arch technique: A retrospective cohort research

      Lin Lu , Jiaping Si , Zhikang Wang , Xiaoyan Chen

      Abstract : Objective: Alveolar bone loss is a common adverse effect of intrusion treatment. Mandibular incisors are prone to dehiscence and fenestrations as they suffer from thinner alveolar bone thickness. Methods: Thirty skeletal class II patients treated with mandibular intrusion arch therapy were included in this study. Lateral cephalograms and cone-beam computed tomography images were taken before treatment (T1) and immediately after intrusion arch removal (T2) to evaluate the tooth displacement and the alveolar bone changes. Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation was used to identify risk factors of alveolar bone loss during the intrusion treatment. Results: Deep overbite was successfully corrected (P < 0.05), accompanied by mandibular incisor proclination (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant change in the true incisor intrusion (P > 0.05). The labial and lingual vertical alveolar bone levels showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05). The alveolar bone is thinning in the labial crestal area and lingual apical area (P < 0.05); accompanied by thickening in the labial apical area (P < 0.05). Proclined incisors, non-extraction treatment, and increased A point-nasion-B point (ANB) degree were positively correlated with alveolar bone loss. Conclusions: While the mandibular intrusion arch effectively corrected the deep overbite, it did cause some unwanted incisor labial tipping/flaring. During the intrusion treatment, the alveolar bone underwent corresponding changes, which was thinning in the labial crestal area and thickening in the labial apical area vice versa. And increased axis change of incisors, non-extraction treatment, and increased ANB were identified as risk factors for alveolar bone loss in patients with mandibular intrusion therapy.

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    • Original Article l 2023-11-25

      Differences in facial soft tissue deviations in Class III patients with different types of mandibular asymmetry: A cone-beam computed tomography study

      Ho-Jin Kim , Hyung-Kyu Noh, Hyo-Sang Park

      Abstract : Objective: This study assessed the differences in soft tissue deviations of the nose, lips, and chin between different mandibular asymmetry types in Class III patients. Methods: Cone-beam computed tomography data from 90 Class III patients with moderate-to-severe facial asymmetry were investigated. The sample was divided into three groups based on the extent of mandibular rolling, yawing, and translation. Soft tissue landmarks on the nose, lips, and chin were investigated vertically, transversely, and anteroposteriorly. A paired t test was performed to compare variables between the deviated (Dv) and nondeviated (NDv) sides, and one-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s post-hoc test was performed for intergroup comparisons. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the relationship between the soft and hard tissue deviations. Results: The roll-dominant group showed significantly greater differences in the vertical positions of the soft tissue landmarks between the Dv and NDv than other groups (P < 0.05), whereas the yaw-dominant group exhibited larger differences in the transverse and anteroposterior directions (P < 0.05). Moreover, transverse lip cant was correlated with the menton (Me) deviation and mandibular rolling in the roll-dominant group (P < 0.001); the angulation of the nasal bridge or philtrum was correlated with the Me deviation and mandibular yawing in the yaw-dominant group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The three-dimensional deviations of facial soft tissue differed based on the mandibular asymmetry types in Class III patients with similar amounts of Me deviation. A precise understanding of soft tissue deviation in each asymmetry type would help achieve satisfactory facial esthetics.

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    • Original Article l 2022-11-25

      Effectiveness of low-level laser therapy in facilitating maxillary expansion using bone-borne hyrax expander: A randomized clinical trial

      Sara Hassan Abdelwassie , Mohammed Amgad Kaddah, Amr Emad El-Dakroury, Dalia El-Boghdady, Mohamed Abd El-Ghafour, Nouran Fouad Seifeldin

      Abstract : Objective: The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to study the skeletal and dental effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) along with a miniscrew-assisted expander (Hyrax) after six months of retention. Methods: After sequence generation, concealed allocation, and implementation, 24 female patients were randomly divided (1:1) into two-groups: bone-borne rapid palatal expansion (BBE) without LLLT (n = 12) and BBE with LLLT (n = 12). Eligibility criteria included female patients aged 10–13 years old with bilateral posterior crossbites. Intraoral and extraoral photographs, cone-beam computed tomography images, and digital study models were obtained before expansion and six months after retention. The 7 mm Hyrax appliance was anchored to four palatal mini-screws, which were activated twice daily for 15 days, then locked and kept in place as a retainer. LLLT was performed in the laser group during expansion and retention, according to the guidelines provided. Results: The records of 24 patients were analyzed. According to the post-retention measurements, both groups showed a significant increase in nasal and maxillary widths and total facial height. In the laser group, the Sella-Nasion-Point A and Point A-Nasion-Point B angles and the interpremolar apical distance were significantly increased. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that the parameters and protocol of LLLT do not clinically affect the efficiency of BBE in prepubertal and pubertal patients.

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    • Reader’s Forum l 2022-11-25

      READER’S FORUM

      Hyo-Won Ahn
    • Original Article l 2023-09-25

      Three-dimensional evaluation of the association between tongue position and upper airway morphology in adults: A cross-sectional study

      Yuchen Zheng , Hussein Aljawad, Min-Seok Kim, Su-Hoon Choi, Min-Soo Kim, Min-Hee Oh, Jin-Hyoung Cho

      Abstract : Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the association between low tongue position (LTP) and the volume and dimensions of the nasopharyngeal, retropalatal, retroglossal, and hypopharyngeal segments of the upper airway. Methods: A total of 194 subjects, including 91 males and 103 females were divided into a resting tongue position (RTP) group and a LTP group according to their tongue position. Subjects in the LTP group were divided into four subgroups (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4) according to the intraoral space volume. The 3D slicer software was used to measure the volume and minimum and average cross-sectional areas of each group. Airway differences between the RTP and LTP groups were analyzed to explore the association between tongue position and the upper airway. Results: No significant differences were found in the airway dimensions between the RTP and LTP groups. For both retropalatal and retroglossal segments, the volume and average cross-sectional area were significantly greater in the patients with extremely low tongue position. Regression analysis showed that the retroglossal airway dimensions were positively correlated with the intraoral space volume and negatively correlated with A point-nasion-B point and palatal plane to mandibular plane. Males generally had larger retroglossal and hypopharyngeal airways than females. Conclusions: Tongue position did not significantly influence upper airway volume or dimensions, except in the extremely LTP subgroup.

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March, 2024
Vol.54 No.2

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Clinical Journal of Korean Association of Orthodontists