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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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    • Original Article l 2019-07-25

      Short-term changes in muscle activity and jaw movement patterns after orthognathic surgery in skeletal Class III patients with facial asymmetry

      Kyung-A Kim, Hong-Sik Park, Soo-Yeon Lee, Su-Jung Kim, Seung-Hak Baek, and Hyo-Won Ahn

      Abstract : ObjectiveTo evaluate the short-term changes in masticatory muscle activity and mandibular movement patterns after orthognathic surgery in skeletal Class III patients with facial asymmetry.MethodsTwenty-seven skeletal Class III adult patients were divided into two groups based on the degree of facial asymmetry: the experimental group (n = 17 [11 male and 6 female]; menton deviation ≥ 4 mm) and control group (n = 10 [4 male and 6 female]; menton deviation < 1.6 mm). Cephalography, electromyography (EMG) for the anterior temporalis (TA) and masseter muscles (MM), and mandibular movement (range of motion [ROM] and average chewing pattern [ACP]) were evaluated before (T0) and 7 to 8 months (T1) after the surgery.ResultsThere were no significant postoperative changes in the EMG potentials of the TA and MM in both groups, except in the anterior cotton roll biting test, in which the masticatory muscle activity had changed into an MM-dominant pattern postoperatively in both groups. In the experimental group, the amount of maximum opening, protrusion, and lateral excursion to the non-deviated side were significantly decreased. The turning point tended to be shorter and significantly moved medially during chewing in the non-deviated side in the experimental group.ConclusionsIn skeletal Class III patients with facial asymmetry, the EMG activity characteristics recovered to presurgical levels within 7 to 8 months after the surgery. Correction of the asymmetry caused limitation in jaw movement in terms of both ROM and ACP on the non-deviated side.

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    • Original Article l 2019-03-25

      Reliability of cone-beam computed tomography for temporomandibular joint analysis

      Hande Gorucu-Coskuner, Ezgi Atik and Hakan El

      Abstract : ObjectiveThe aim was to assess the intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities of temporomandibular joint linear measurements and condylar shape classifications performed with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).MethodsCBCT images of 30 patients were measured at two different time points by two orthodontists using the Dolphin 3D program (n = 60). Anterior, posterior, and superior joint space measurements and sagittal joint morphology classification in the sagittal view and medial and lateral joint space and mediolateral width measurements and coronal joint morphology classification in the coronal view were recorded. Intraclass-interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and kappa statistics were used to assess intraobserver and interobserver reliability for the measurements and morphology classifications, respectively.ResultsThe ICC values were good for measurements of the posterior joint space by observer I and for measurements of the posterior, medial, and lateral joint spaces by observer II, while the other intraobserver measurements were excellent. Only the mediolateral width measurements showed excellent interobserver ICC values, while the other measurements showed good interobserver ICC values. Intraobserver agreement for the sagittal morphology classifications was moderate (κ = 0.479) and almost perfect (κ = 0.858) for observers I and II, respectively, while the corresponding agreement for the coronal morphology classifications was substantial for both observers. The interobserver agreement values for sagittal and coronal morphology classifications were slight (κ = 0.181) and fair (κ = 0.265), respectively.ConclusionsLinear temporomandibular joint measurements were reproducible and reliable in both intraobserver and interobserver evaluations. However, interobserver agreement for assessments of condylar shape was low.

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    • Original Article l 2020-01-25

      Comparison of three midsagittal planes for three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography head reorientation

      Eon-Hwa Lee, Hyung-Seog Yu, Kee-Joon Lee, Sang-Sun Han, Hwi-Dong Jung, and Chung-Ju Hwang

      Abstract : ObjectiveThis study compared three prominent midsagittal planes (MSPs) to identify the MSP that best approximates the true symmetrical MSP.MethodsForty-three patients (mean age, 23.0 ± 8.20 years) were grouped as follows: group 1 consisted of 10 patients with skeletal Class I and a menton (Me) deviation of < 2 mm; group 2, 11 patients with skeletal Class III and a Me deviation < 2 mm; group 3, nine patients with skeletal Class III and a Me deviation of 2 to less than 4 mm; and group 4, 13 patients with skeletal Class III and an Me deviation ≥ 4 mm. The candidate MSPs were established by three-dimensional (3D) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) reorientation methods (RMs): (1) the MSP perpendicular to the Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane while passing through the crista galli and basion; (2) the MSP including the nasion, incisive foramen, and basion; (3) the MSP including the nasion, anterior nasal spine, and posterior nasal spine. The mean absolute distances (MADs) to the MSPs were calculated from the coordinates of 1,548 points on 129 CBCT images. The differences in the values of the 3D coordinates among RMs were compared.ResultsThe MADs of the three RMs showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Most of the differences in values of the coordinates were not significant among RMs.ConclusionsAlthough the differences in distance among the three MSPs were minor, the MSP perpendicular to the FH plane while passing through the crista galli and basion best approximated the true symmetrical MSP.

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    • Original Article l 2019-11-25

      Type of tooth movement during en masse retraction of the maxillary anterior teeth using labial versus lingual biocreative therapy in adults: A randomized clinical trial

      Mais M. Sadek, Noha E. Sabet, and Islam T. Hassan

      Abstract : ObjectiveThe objective of this two-arm parallel trial was to compare the type of tooth movement during en masse retraction of the maxillary anterior teeth using labial versus lingual biocreative therapy.MethodsTwenty-eight subjects were randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to either the labial or lingual group. En masse anterior retraction was performed using labial biocreative therapy in group A and lingual biocreative therapy in group B. Cone beam computed tomography scans were taken before and after retraction and the primary outcome was the type of tooth movement during anterior retraction. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests for comparisons within each group and independent-sample t-test for comparison of the mean treatment changes between the two groups.ResultsSignificant differences were found between the two groups in relation to the type of tooth movement (labiolingual inclination of the central incisor; mean difference, 5.85 ± 1.85°). The canine showed significant distal tipping in the lingual group (mean difference, 6.98 ± 1.25°). The canine was significantly more intruded in the lingual group (mean difference, 1.67 ± 0.49 mm). Good anchorage control and significant soft tissue changes occurred in both groups. No serious adverse effects were detected.ConclusionsWith a 10-mm retraction hook, the labial biocreative technique with the reverse curve overlay provided anterior retraction with good torque control, while in the lingual group, anterior retraction occurred with controlled tipping movement with significant distal tipping and intrusion of the canine (trial registration: The trial was registered at []).

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    • Original Article l 2020-01-25

      Distribution and phenotypes of hemifacial microsomia and its association with other anomalies

      Il-Hyung Yang, Jee Hyeok Chung, Sunjin Yim, Il-Sik Cho, Seung-Weon Lim, Kikap Kim, Sukwha Kim, Jin-Young Choi, Jong-Ho Lee, Myung-Jin Kim, and Seung-Hak Baek

      Abstract : ObjectiveTo investigate the distribution and phenotypes of hemifacial microsomia (HFM) and its association with other anomalies.MethodsThis study included 249 Korean patients with HFM, whose charts, photographs, radiographs, and/or computed tomography scans acquired during 1998–2018 were available from Seoul National University Hospital and Dental Hospital. Prevalence according to sex, side involvement, degree of mandibular deformity, compensatory growth of the mandibular body, and Angle's classification, and its association with other anomalies were statistically analyzed.ResultsPrevalence was not different between male and female patients (55.0% vs. 45.0%, p > 0.05). Unilateral HFM (UHFM) was more prevalent than bilateral HFM (BHFM) (86.3% vs. 13.7%, p < 0.001). Although distribution of the Pruzansky–Kaban types differed significantly in patients with UHFM (I, 53.0%; IIa, 18.6%; IIb, 24.7%; III, 3.7%; p < 0.001), no difference was observed in occurrence between the right and left sides (52.6% vs. 47.4%, p > 0.05). Among patients with BHFM, prevalence of different Pruzansky–Kaban types on the right and left sides was greater than that of the same type on both sides (67.6% vs. 32.4%, p < 0.05). Despite hypoplasia of the condyle/ramus complex, compensatory growth of the mandibular body on the ipsilateral side occurred in 35 patients (14.1%). Class I and II molar relationships were more prevalent than Class III molar relationships (93.2% vs. 6.8%, p < 0.001). Forty-eight patients (19.3%) had other anomalies, with 50.0% and 14.4% in the BHFM and UHFM groups (p < 0.001).ConclusionsPatients with HFM require individualized diagnosis and treatment planning because of diverse phenotypes and associations with other anomalies.

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    • Original Article l 2019-05-25

      Palatal en-masse retraction of segmented maxillary anterior teeth: A finite element study

      Jae Hyun Park, Yoon-Ah Kook, Yukio Kojima, Sunock Yun, and Jong-Moon Chae

      Abstract : ObjectiveThe aim of this finite element study was to clarify the mechanics of tooth movement in palatal en-masse retraction of segmented maxillary anterior teeth by using anchor screws and lever arms.MethodsA three-dimensional finite element method was used to simulate overall orthodontic tooth movements. The line of action of the force was varied by changing both the lever arm height and anchor screw position.ResultsWhen the line of action of the force passed through the center of resistance (CR), the anterior teeth showed translation. However, when the line of action was not perpendicular to the long axis of the anterior teeth, the anterior teeth moved bodily with an unexpected intrusion even though the force was transmitted horizontally. To move the anterior teeth bodily without intrusion and extrusion, a downward force passing through the CR was necessary. When the line of action of the force passed apical to the CR, the anterior teeth tipped counterclockwise during retraction, and when the line of action of the force passed coronal to the CR, the anterior teeth tipped clockwise during retraction.ConclusionsThe movement pattern of the anterior teeth changed depending on the combination of lever arm height and anchor screw position. However, this pattern may be unpredictable in clinical settings because the movement direction is not always equal to the force direction.

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    • Original Article l 2020-03-25

      Immediate effects of mandibular posterior displacement on the pharyngeal airway space: A preliminary study

      Yeonju Choi, Yong-Il Kim, Seong-Sik Kim, Soo-Byung Park, Woo-Sung Son and Sung-Hun Kim

      Abstract : ObjectiveThis study aimed to evaluate the immediate effects of mandibular posterior displacement on the pharyngeal airway space (PAS) by using cephalometric evaluations and to investigate how the surrounding structures are schematically involved.MethodsIn this retrospective study, 38 subjects with functional Class III malocclusion and two lateral cephalograms were selected. The first lateral cephalogram was taken with the mandible in the habitual occlusal position, and the second in anterior edge-to-edge bite. Paired t-test was used to analyze changes in the PAS, hyoid bone, tongue, and soft palate, followed by mandibular posterior displacement. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the amount of mandibular posterior displacement and other variables.ResultsA statistically significant decrease was observed in the PAS following mandibular posterior displacement. Along with mandibular posterior displacement, the tongue decreased in length (p < 0.001) and increased in height (p < 0.05), while the soft palate increased in length, decreased in thickness, and was posteriorly displaced (p < 0.001). The hyoid bone was also posteriorly displaced (p < 0.05). There was no correlation between the amount of mandibular posterior displacement and the measured variables.ConclusionsThe PAS showed a statistically significant decrease following mandibular posterior displacement, which was a consequence of retraction of the surrounding structures. However, there were individual variances between the amount of mandibular posterior displacement and the measured variables.

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    • Original Article l 2019-11-25

      The influence of leukocyte-platelet-rich plasma on accelerated orthodontic tooth movement in rabbits

      Theerasak Nakornnoi, Chidchanok Leethanakul, and Bancha Samruajbenjakun

      Abstract : ObjectiveTo determine the effects of a local injection of leukocyte-platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) on orthodontic tooth movement in rabbits.MethodsTwenty-three male New Zealand white rabbits were included in a split-mouth design. Tooth movement with a 100-g nickel-titanium closed-coil spring was performed on the maxillary first premolars. L-PRP was injected submucosally at the buccal and lingual areas of the first premolar in one random side of the maxilla and the other side served as the control and received normal saline. The amount of tooth movement was assessed on three-dimensional digital models on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Histological findings and osteoclast numbers were examined on day 0 as the baseline and on days 7, 14, and 28.ResultsThe L-PRP group showed significantly greater cumulative tooth movement at all observed periods. However, a significantly higher rate of tooth movement was observed only on days 0–7 and 7–14. The osteoclast numbers were significantly increased in the L-PRP group on days 7 and 14.ConclusionsLocal injection of L-PRP resulted in a transient increase in the rate of tooth movement and higher osteoclast numbers.

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    • Original Article l 2019-09-25

      Application of the foramina of the trigeminal nerve as landmarks for analysis of craniofacial morphology

      Ba-Da Lim, Dong-Soon Choi, Insan Jang and Bong-Kuen Cha

      Abstract : ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to develop new parameters based on the foramina of the trigeminal nerve and to compare them with the conventional cephalometric parameters in different facial skeletal types.MethodsCone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and cephalograms from 147 adult patients (57 males and 90 females; mean age, 26.1 years) were categorized as Class I (1° < ANB < 3°), Class II (ANB > 5°), and Class III (ANB < −1°). Seven foramina in the craniofacial area—foramen rotundum (Rot), foramen ovale (Ov), infraorbital foramen, greater palatine foramen, incisive foramen (IF), mandibular foramen (MDF), and mental foramen (MTF)—were identified in the CBCT images. Various linear, angular, and ratio parameters were compared between the groups by using the foramina, and the relationship between the new parameters and the conventional cephalometric parameters was assessed.ResultsThe distances between the foramina in the cranial base did not differ among the three groups. However, the Rot-IF length was shorter in female Class III patients, while the Ov-MTF length, MDF-MTF length, and Ov-MDF length were shorter in Class II patients than in Class III patients of both sexes. The MDF-MTF/FH plane angle was larger in Class II patients than in Class III patients of both sexes. Most parameters showed moderate to high correlations, but the Ov-MDF-MTF angle showed a relatively low correlation with the gonial angle.ConclusionsThe foramina of the trigeminal nerve can be used to supplement assessments based on the conventional skeletal landmarks on CBCT images.

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    • Original Article l 2019-05-25

      Investigation of the association between orthodontic treatment and temporomandibular joint pain and dysfunction in the South Korean population

      Hye-Young Sim, Hee-Sun Kim, Da-Un Jung, Ho Lee, Yoon-Sic Han, Kyungdo Han, and Kyoung-In Yun

      Abstract : ObjectiveThis study investigated the relationship between orthodontic treatment and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in South Korean population.MethodsThis study obtained data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The final sample size was 5,567 participants who were ≥ 19 years of age. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between orthodontic treatment and TMD.ResultsParticipants who underwent orthodontic treatment showed higher educational level, lower body mass index, reduced chewing difficulty, and reduced speaking difficulty. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for orthodontic treatment and TMD were 1.614 (1.189–2.190), 1.573 (1.162–2.129) and 1.612 (1.182–2.196) after adjusting for age, sex and psychosocial factors. Adjusted ORs and their 95% CIs for orthodontic treatment and clicking were 1.778 (1.289–2.454), 1.742 (1.265–2.400) and 1.770 (1.280–2.449) after adjusting for confounding factors. However, temporomandibular joint pain and functional impairment was not associated with orthodontic treatment.ConclusionsTemporomandibular joint pain and dysfunction was not associated with orthodontic treatment.

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Journal Info.

January, 2021
Vol.51 No.1

Frequency: 6 times

Journal Impact Factor

  • 1.476
    2018 IF

  • 1.523
    5-Year IF

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Clinical Journal of Korean Association of Orthodontists