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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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    • Original Article l 2022-09-25

      Clinical effectiveness of different types of bone-anchored maxillary protraction devices for skeletal Class III malocclusion: Systematic review and network meta-analysis

      Jiangwei Wang , Yingying Yang, Yingxue Wang, Lu Zhang, Wei Ji, Zheng Hong, Linkun Zhang

      Abstract : Objective: This study aimed to estimate the clinical effects of different types of bone-anchored maxillary protraction devices by using a network meta-analysis. Methods: We searched seven databases for randomized and controlled clinical trials that compared bone-anchored maxillary protraction with tooth-anchored maxillary protraction interventions or untreated groups up to May 2021. After literature selection, data extraction, and quality assessment, we calculated the mean differences, 95% confidence intervals, and surface under the cumulative ranking scores of eleven indicators. Statistical analysis was performed using R statistical software with the GeMTC package based on the Bayesian framework. Results: Six interventions and 667 patients were involved in 18 studies. In comparison with the tooth-anchored groups, the bone-anchored groups showed significantly more increases in Sella-Nasion-Subspinale (°), Subspinale-Nasion-Supramentale(°) and significantly fewer increases in mandibular plane angle and the labial proclination angle of upper incisors. In comparison with the control group, Sella-Nasion-Supramentale(°) decreased without any statistical significance in all treated groups. IMPA (angle of lower incisors and mandibular plane) decreased in groups with facemasks and increased in other groups. Conclusions: Bone-anchored maxillary protraction can promote greater maxillary forward movement and correct the Class III intermaxillary relationship better, in addition to showing less clockwise rotation of mandible and labial proclination of upper incisors. However, strengthening anchorage could not inhibit mandibular growth better and the lingual inclination of lower incisors caused by the treatment is related to the use of a facemask.

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    • Original Article l 2022-05-25

      Which anchorage device is the best during retraction of anterior teeth? An overview of systematic reviews

      Yassir A. Yassir , Sarah A. Nabbat, Grant T. McIntyre, David R. Bearn

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate the available evidence regarding the clinical effectiveness of different types of anchorage devices. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of different electronic databases was conducted for systematic reviews investigating different anchorage methods published up to April 15, 2021. Any ongoing systematic reviews were searched using PROSPERO, and a grey literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar and OpenGrey. No language restriction was applied. Screening, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed independently by two authors. Information was categorized and narratively synthesized for the key findings from moderate- and high-quality reviews. Results: Fourteen systematic reviews were included (11 were of moderate/high quality). Skeletal anchorage with miniscrews was associated with less anchorage loss (and sometimes with anchorage gain). Similarly, skeletal anchorage was more effective in retracting anterior teeth and intruding incisors and molars, resulting in minor vertical skeletal changes and improvements in the soft tissue profile. However, insufficient evidence was obtained for the preference of any anchorage method in terms of the duration of treatment, number of appointments, quality of treatment, patient perception, or adverse effects. The effectiveness of skeletal anchorage can be enhanced when: directly loaded, used in the mandible rather than the maxilla, used buccally rather than palatally, using dual rather than single miniscrews, used for en-masse retraction, and in adults. Conclusions: The level of evidence regarding anchorage effectiveness is moderate. Nevertheless, compared to conventional anchorage, skeletal anchorage can be used with more anchorage preservation. Further high-quality randomized clinical trials are required to confirm these findings.

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    • Original Article l 2021-11-25

      Effect of lower facial height and anteroposterior lip position on esthetic preference for Korean silhouette profiles

      Kyung-Hyun Seo , Deuk-Hun So, Kyeong-Tae Song, Sung-Kwon Choi, Kyung-Hwa Kang

      Abstract : Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the esthetic preference for various Korean silhouette profiles. Methods: The Korean average male and female profiles were modified by changing the lower facial height and anteroposterior lip position to produce nine types of profiles. In order to test intrarater reliability, the average profile was copied once more to be included for evaluation. A questionnaire containing 10 profiles for each sex, each of which had to be rated for preference on a numerical rating scale from 0 to 10, was administered to 30 adult orthodontic patients, 30 dental students, 30 orthodontists, and 30 dentists excluding orthodontists. The data were statistically analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), independent t-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results: The ICC of overall intrarater reliability was 0.629. For several profiles, significantly higher scores were given to male profiles than to female profiles (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences were found in the scores for all profiles among the four rater groups. Among the short profiles, a significantly higher score was given to the retruded profile, and among the vertically average and long profiles, a significantly higher score was given to the horizontally average profile (p < 0.001). Among all the profiles, significantly lower scores were given to the protruded profile (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study revealed good overall intrarater reliability, with several types of male profiles being esthetically preferred over female profiles. Moreover, while retruded and horizontally average profiles were generally preferred, protruded profiles were not.

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    • Original Article l 2022-01-25

      Comparison of one-jaw and two-jaw orthognathic surgery in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion using data from 10 multi-centers in Korea: Part I. Demographic and skeletodental characteristics

      Seung-Weon Lim , Minsoo Kim, Mihee Hong, Kyung-Hwa Kang, Minji Kim, Su-Jung Kim, Yoon-Ji Kim, Young Ho Kim, Sung-Hoon Lim, Sang Jin Sung, Seung-Hak Baek, Jin-Hyoung Cho

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate demographic and skeletodental characteristics of one-jaw (1J-OGS) and two-jaw orthognathic surgery (2J-OGS) in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion. Methods: 750 skeletal Class III patients who underwent OGS at 10 university hospitals in Korea between 2015 and 2019 were investigated; after dividing them into the 1J-OGS (n = 186) and 2J-OGS groups (n = 564), demographic and skeletodental characteristics were statistically analyzed. Results: 2J-OGS was more frequently performed than 1J-OGS (75.2 vs. 24.8%), despite regional differences (capital area vs. provinces, 86.6 vs. 30.7%, p < 0.001). Males outnumbered females, and their mean operation age was older in both groups. Regarding dental patterns, the most frequent maxillary arch length discrepancy (ALD) was crowding in the 1J-OGS group (52.7%, p < 0.001) and spacing in the 2J-OGS group (40.4%, p < 0.001). However, the distribution of skeletal pattern was not significantly different between the two groups (all p > 0.05). The most prevalent skeletal patterns in both groups were hyper-divergent pattern (50.0 and 54.4%, respectively) and left-side chin point deviation (both 49.5%). Maxillary spacing (odds ratio [OR], 3.645; p < 0.001) increased the probability of 2J-OGS, while maxillary crowding (OR, 0.672; p < 0.05) and normo-divergent pattern (OR, 0.615; p < 0.05) decreased the probability of 2J-OGS. Conclusions: In both groups, males outnumbered females, and their mean operation age was older. The most frequent ALD was crowding in the 1J-OGS group, and spacing in the 2J-OGS group, while skeletal characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups.

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    • Original Article l 2022-05-25

      Occlusal deviations in adolescents with idiopathic and congenital scoliosis

      Hao Zhang , Jingbo Ma , Zhicheng Zhang , Yafei Feng, Chuan Cai, Chao Wang

      Abstract : Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the characteristics of malocclusions in scoliotic patients through clinical examinations. Methods: Fifty-eight patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and 48 patients with congenital scoliosis (CS) participated in the study. A randomly selected group of 152 orthopedically healthy children served as the control group. Standardized orthodontic and orthopedic examination protocols were used to record the occlusal patterns and type of scoliosis. Assessments were made by three experienced orthodontists and a spinal surgery team. The differences in the frequency distribution of occlusal patterns were evaluated by the chi-squared test. Results: In comparison with patients showing IS, patients with CS showed a higher incidence of Cobb angle ≥ 45° (p = 0.020) and included a higher proportion of patients receiving surgical treatments (p < 0.001). The distribution of the Angle Class II subgroup was significantly higher in the IS (p < 0.001) and CS (p = 0.031) groups than in the control group. In comparison with the healthy controls, the CS and IS groups showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) frequencies of asymmetric molar and asymmetric canine relationships, upper and lower middle line deviations, anterior deep overbite, unilateral posterior crossbite, and canted occlusal plane, with the frequencies being especially higher in CS patients and to a lesser extent in IS patients. Conclusions: Patients with scoliosis showed a high frequency of malocclusions, which were most obvious in patients with CS.

    • Original Article l 2022-01-25

      Incidence and management of condylar resorption after orthognathic surgery: An overview

      Selene Barone , Giorgio Cosentini, Francesco Bennardo, Alessandro Antonelli, Amerigo Giudice

      Abstract : Objective: Condylar resorption (CR) is one of the major post-surgical complications of orthognathic surgery. This systematic review (SR) aimed to evaluate epidemiological data, risk factors, and therapeutical management of CR. Methods: Six databases were screened by two investigators until September 2020 to obtain all SRs. After reading the titles and abstracts, eligible SRs were determined and data extraction was performed. Using the latest version of A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews, the methodological quality of the included SRs was determined. Results: Ten SRs with low or critically-low methodological quality were included in this review. Mandibular hypoplasia on the sagittal plane and hyperdivergent growth pattern on the vertical plane were the most common skeletal alterations in which CR could occur after orthognathic surgery. Post-operative condylar changes were analyzed both on two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) radiographic examinations. The incidence of CR was not related to the fixation method. Based on the severity of the pathological conditions, management of CR can include conservative or surgical therapy. Conclusions: Despite the limited evidence in literature, CR is considered a consequence of orthognathic surgery. However, an accurate diagnosis of CR and a better orthognathic surgical planning must include 3D radiographic examinations to improve pre- and post-surgical comparison. Well-designed studies with long-term follow-up and 3D data are needed to clarify the findings of this analysis..

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    • Original Article l 2021-09-25

      Prevalence and patterns of tooth agenesis among patients aged 12–22 years: A retrospective study

      Basak Kiziltan Eliacik , Cafer Atas, Gunseli Guven Polat

      Abstract : Objective: This study aimed to establish the prevalence and patterns of nonsyndromic tooth agenesis in patients referred to a tertiary health care facility. Methods: The intraoral records and panoramic radiographs of 9,874 patients aged 12–22 years were evaluated. The study group included 716 patients (371 male, 345 female) with non-syndromic agenesis of at least one tooth (except the third molars). The study data were assessed using descriptive statistics, chisquare test, and Mann–Whitney U test, while patterns were evaluated using a tooth agenesis code (TAC) tool. Results: A total of 1,627 congenitally missing teeth, were found in patients with non-syndromic tooth agenesis, with an average of 2.27 missing teeth per patient. The prevalence of tooth agenesis was 7.25%, and the most commonly missing teeth were the left mandibular second premolars (10.17%). The age group comparison revealed no significant difference in the median number of missing teeth per patient according to the cutoff values for ages between 12 and 22 years. When the missing teeth were examined separately according to quadrants, 114 different tooth agenesis patterns (upper right quadrant = 28, upper left quadrant = 27, lower left quadrant = 31, and lower right quadrant = 28) were identified, and 81 of these patterns appeared only once. Conclusions: This study highlights the benefits of applying the TAC tool in a large sample population. The application of the TAC tool in such studies will enable the development of template treatment plans by determining homogenous patterns of tooth agenesis in certain populations.

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    • Original Article l 2022-03-25

      Deep learning for the classification of cervical maturation degree and pubertal growth spurts: A pilot study

      Hossein Mohammad-Rahimi , Saeed Reza Motamadian, Mohadeseh Nadimi, Sahel Hassanzadeh-Samani, Mohammad A. S. Minabi, Erfan Mahmoudinia, Victor Y. Lee, Mohammad Hossein Rohban

      Abstract : Objective: This study aimed to present and evaluate a new deep learning model for determining cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) degree and growth spurts by analyzing lateral cephalometric radiographs. Methods: The study sample included 890 cephalograms. The images were classified into six cervical stages independently by two orthodontists. The images were also categorized into three degrees on the basis of the growth spurt: pre-pubertal, growth spurt, and post-pubertal. Subsequently, the samples were fed to a transfer learning model implemented using the Python programming language and PyTorch library. In the last step, the test set of cephalograms was randomly coded and provided to two new orthodontists in order to compare their diagnosis to the artificial intelligence (AI) model’s performance using weighted kappa and Cohen’s kappa statistical analyses. Results: The model’s validation and test accuracy for the six-class CVM diagnosis were 62.63% and 61.62%, respectively. Moreover, the model’s validation and test accuracy for the three-class classification were 75.76% and 82.83%, respectively. Furthermore, substantial agreements were observed between the two orthodontists as well as one of them and the AI model. Conclusions: The newly developed AI model had reasonable accuracy in detecting the CVM stage and high reliability in detecting the pubertal stage. However, its accuracy was still less than that of human observers. With further improvements in data quality, this model should be able to provide practical assistance to practicing dentists in the future.

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    • Original Article l 2022-03-25

      Remote digital monitoring during the retention phase of orthodontic treatment: A prospective feasibility study

      Linda Sangalli , Fabio Savoldi , Domenico Dalessandri, Luca Visconti, Francesca Massetti, Stefano Bonetti

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate if a remote digital monitoring system added at the end of orthodontic treatment could positively influence the retention phase by reducing the occurrence of misfit of removable appliances, number of emergency appointments (EA), and orthodontic relapse. Methods: Twenty-seven patients who completed active orthodontic treatment were divided into the study and control groups. In addition to the standard chairside follow-up appointments at month 1 (T1), month 3 (T2), month 6 (T3), the study group patients were monitored using Dental Monitoring® with monthly intra-oral scans. Occurrence of misfit of removable retainers, number of EAs, and intercanine width change were recorded for both groups. Differences in EAs and retainer fit were assessed using the chi-square test. Intra-group and inter-group differences in the intercanine width were assessed with Friedman test and Mann–Whitney U test, respectively (α = 0.05). Results: The study group showed a significantly lower occurrence of misfit of removable retainers (p = 0.027) compared to the control group. No significant inter- and intra-group difference was found in the EAs and intercanine width change at each time-point. Conclusions: Integrating remote monitoring systems, such as Dental Monitoring®, to the retention phase of the orthodontic treatment may lower the occurrence of misfit of removable retainers. However, a small sample size and a short observation period limit the strength of this evidence. These preliminary results tentatively suggest that remote monitoring technologies may be beneficial, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, when the regularity of in-office visits might be disrupted.

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    • Original Article l 2022-03-25

      Customized maxillary incisor position relative to dentoskeletal and soft tissue patterns in Chinese women: A retrospective study

      Xueman Zhou , Yingcheng Zheng , Zhenzhen Zhang, Zihan Zhang, Lina Wu, Jiaqi Liu, Wenke Yang, Jun Wang

      Abstract : Objective: To provide reliable prediction models based on dentoskeletal and soft tissue variables for customizing maxillary incisor positions and to optimize digitalized orthodontic treatment planning. Methods: This study included 244 Chinese women (age, 18–40 years old) with esthetic profiles after orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances (133 in group I: 1° ≤ The angle between the nasion [N]-A point [A] plane and the N-B point [B] plane [ANB] ≤ 4°; 111 in group II: 4° < ANB ≤ 7°). Dental, skeletal, and soft tissue measurements were performed on lateral cephalograms of the participants. Correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the influence of dentoskeletal and soft tissue variables on maxillary incisor position. Results: The ideal anteroposterior position of the maxillary incisor varied between sagittal skeletal patterns. The position of the maxillary incisor correlated with the sagittal discrepancy between the maxilla and the mandible (ANB), protrusion of the midface, nasal tip projection, development of the chin, and inclination of both the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Distance from the maxillary central incisor to nasion-pogonion plane predicted using multiple linear regression analysis was accurate and could be a practical measurement in orthodontic treatment planning. Conclusions: Instead of using an average value or norm, orthodontists should customize a patient’s ideal maxillary incisor position using dentoskeletal and soft tissue evaluations.

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