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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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    • Original Article l 2021-09-25

      Characterization of phenotypes and predominant skeletodental patterns in pre-adolescent patients with Pierre–Robin sequence

      Il-Hyung Yang , Jee Hyeok Chung, Hyeok Joon Lee, Il-Sik Cho, Jin-Young Choi, Jong-Ho Lee, Sukwha Kim, Seung-Hak Baek

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate the phenotypes and predominant skeletodental pattern in pre-adolescent patients with Pierre–Robin sequence (PRS). Methods: The samples consisted of 26 Korean pre-adolescent PRS patients (11 boys and 15 girls; mean age at the investigation, 9.20 years) treated at the Department of Orthodontics, Seoul National University Dental Hospital between 1998 and 2019. Dental phenotypes, oral manifestation, cephalometric variables, and associated anomalies were investigated and statistically analyzed. Results: Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) were found in 34.6% of the patients (n = 9/26, 20 teeth, 2.22 teeth per patient) with 55.5% (n = 5/9) exhibiting bilaterally symmetric missing pattern. The mandibular incisors were the most common CMT (n = 11/20). Predominant skeletodental patterns included Class II relationship (57.7%), posteriorly positioned maxilla (76.9%) and mandible (92.3%), hyper-divergent pattern (92.3%), high gonial angle (65.4%), small mandibular body length to anterior cranial base ratio (65.4%), linguoversion of the maxillary incisors (76.9%), and linguoversion of the mandibular incisors (80.8%). Incomplete cleft palate (CP) of hard palate with complete CP of soft palate (61.5%) was the most frequently observed, followed by complete CP of hard and soft palate (19.2%) and CP of soft palate (19.2%) (p < 0.05). However, CP severity did not show a significant correlation with any cephalometric variables except incisor mandibular plane angle (p < 0.05). Five craniofacial and 15 extra-craniofacial anomalies were observed (53.8% patients); this implicated the need of routine screening. Conclusions: The results might provide primary data for individualized diagnosis and treatment planning for pre-adolescent PRS patients despite a single institution-based data.

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    • Brief Report l 2022-01-25

      Micro-computed tomographic evaluation of the effect of fluoride agents on white spot lesions: An in vitro study

      Sook-Chan Hong , Dong-Yul Lee, Yae-Jin Kim

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate remineralizing effect of three fluoride regimens on artificially demineralized enamel around orthodontic bracket by analyzing mineral density (MD) acquired from micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Methods: Forty-eight bracket bonded bovine incisors were prepared to create demineralized enamel (DE) surface. The samples were divided into four groups according to the fluoride regimen: 1) no fluoridation, 2) 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel, 3) fluoridated toothpaste, and 4) 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash. Micro-CT was scanned after demineralization (T0), and 2 weeks (T1) and 4 weeks (T2) of fluoridation. Results: APF gel showed highest remineralization of DE during T1–T0 interval among the groups (p < 0.05); followed by toothpaste, mouthwash and no fluoridation. APF gel and toothpaste demonstrated significant increase in MD after 4 weeks of application (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Remineralization effects of three fluoride regimens were depicted through micro-CT analysis, of which APF gel was most effective.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-03-25

      Differences in dentoskeletal and soft tissue changes due to rapid maxillary expansion using a tooth-borne expander between adolescents and adults: A retrospective observational study

      Jung-Sub An , Bo-Yeon Seo, Sug-Joon Ahn

      Abstract : Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in dentoskeletal and soft tissue changes following conventional tooth-borne rapid maxillary expansion (RME) between adolescents and adults. Methods: Dentoskeletal and soft tissue variables of 17 adolescents and 17 adults were analyzed on posteroanterior and lateral cephalograms and frontal photographs at pretreatment (T1) and after conventional RME using tooth-borne expanders (T2). Changes in variables within each group between T1 and T2 were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Mann–Whitney U test was used to determine the differences in the pretreatment age, expansion and post-expansion durations, and dentoskeletal and soft tissue changes after RME between the groups. Spearman’s correlation between pretreatment age and transverse dentoskeletal changes in the adolescent group was calculated. Results: Despite similar amounts of expansion at the crown level in both groups, the adult group underwent less skeletal expansion with less intermolar root expansion after RME than the adolescent group. The skeletal vertical dimension increased significantly in both groups without significant intergroup difference. The anteroposterior position of the maxilla was maintained in both groups, while a greater backward displacement of the mandible was evident in the adult group than that in the adolescent group after RME. The soft tissue alar width increased in both groups without a significant intergroup difference. In the adolescent group, pretreatment age was not significantly correlated with transverse dentoskeletal changes. Conclusions: Conventional RME may induce similar soft tissue changes but different dentoskeletal changes between adolescents and adults.

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    • Original Article l 2022-07-25

      Accuracy of artificial intelligence-assisted landmark identification in serial lateral cephalograms of Class III patients who underwent orthodontic treatment and two-jaw orthognathic surgery

      Mihee Hong , Inhwan Kim , Jin-Hyoung Cho, Kyung-Hwa Kang, Minji Kim, Su-Jung Kim, Yoon-Ji Kim, Sang-Jin Sung, Young Ho Kim, Sung-Hoon Lim, Namkug Kim , Seung-Hak Baek

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate the pattern of accuracy change in artificial intelligence-assisted landmark identification (LI) using a convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm in serial lateral cephalograms (Lat-cephs) of Class III (C-III) patients who underwent two-jaw orthognathic surgery. Methods: A total of 3,188 Lat-cephs of C-III patients were allocated into the training and validation sets (3,004 Lat-cephs of 751 patients) and test set (184 Lat-cephs of 46 patients; subdivided into the genioplasty and non-genioplasty groups, n = 23 per group) for LI. Each C-III patient in the test set had four Lat-cephs: initial (T0), pre-surgery (T1, presence of orthodontic brackets [OBs]), post-surgery (T2, presence of OBs and surgical plates and screws [S-PS]), and debonding (T3, presence of S-PS and fixed retainers [FR]). After mean errors of 20 landmarks between human gold standard and the CNN model were calculated, statistical analysis was performed. Results: The total mean error was 1.17 mm without significant difference among the four time-points (T0, 1.20 mm; T1, 1.14 mm; T2, 1.18 mm; T3, 1.15 mm). In comparison of two time-points ([T0, T1] vs. [T2, T3]), ANS, A point, and B point showed an increase in error (p < 0.01, 0.05, 0.01, respectively), while Mx6D and Md6D showeda decrease in error (all p < 0.01). No difference in errors existed at B point, Pogonion, Menton, Md1C, and Md1R between the genioplasty and non-genioplasty groups. Conclusions: The CNN model can be used for LI in serial Lat-cephs despite the presence of OB, S-PS, FR, genioplasty, and bone remodeling.

    • Case Report l 2022-09-25

      Clinical application of maxillary tissue bone-borne expander and biocreative reverse curve system in the orthodontic retreatment of severe anterior open bite with transverse discrepancy: A case report

      Jin-Young Choi , Bai Jin , Seong-Hun Kim

      Abstract : Anterior open bite and transverse discrepancy are often accompanied by hyperdivergent skeletal patterns. In addition, degenerative joint disorders and vertical maxillary excess contribute to an unfavorable convex facial profile with a retruded chin. Correction of this complex three-dimensional problem with orthodontic treatment alone is considered challenging owing to anatomical limitations. Moreover, a history of orthodontic treatment with premolar extraction makes retreatment difficult. This case report illustrates the application of a maxillary tissue bone-borne expander and biocreative reverse curve system in a 23-year-old female patient with a severe anterior open bite and transverse discrepancy who underwent orthodontic treatment with four premolar extractions. By setting the treatment target under precise diagnosis and using appropriate appliances, a satisfactory treatment result could be achieved without orthognathic surgery.

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    • Brief Report l 2022-07-25

      Split orthodontic airway plate: An innovation to the utilization method of conventional orthodontic airway plate for neonates with Robin sequence

      HyeRan Choo , Seong-Hun Kim, Hyo-Won Ahn, Christian F. Poets, Kyu-Rhim Chung

      Abstract : Since the emergence of neonatal infant orthodontics for treatments of cleft lip and palate with or without Robin sequence (RS) in Europe in the 1950s, advancements in design and scope of its application have been remarkable. As the first institution to adopt orthodontic airway plate (OAP) treatment in the United States in 2019, we saw a need for innovation of the original design to streamline the most labor-intensive and time-consuming aspects of OAP utilization. A solution is introduced using a systematic split expansion mechanism to re-size the OAP periodically to accommodate the neonate’s maxillary growth. To date, seven RS patients have received this modified treatment protocol at our institution. Each patient completed full treatment using only one OAP. This innovative utilization method is aptly named the split orthodontic airway plate (S-OAP). Details of the S-OAP and its modifications from conventional OAP are reported.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-09-25

      A cone-beam computed tomography study on strategic uprighting of mandibular molars using a biocreative reverse curve system

      Jae-Woo Kim , Jin-Young Choi , Min-Ji Kim, Xu Bin, Seong-Hun Kim

      Abstract : Objective: To analyze the overall treatment effects in terms of the amount of uprighting with changes in the three-dimensional positions of the mandibular posterior teeth after applying the biocreative reverse curve (BRC) system. Methods: Thirty-four patients (mean age, 20.5 ± 8.56 years) were treated using the BRC system (mean period, 8.17 ± 2.19 months). Cone-beam computed tomography was performed before treatment and after treatment with the BRC system. The three-dimensional movement of each tooth was analyzed in the coordinate system at points on the crown and root apex. A paired t-test was used to analyze the treatment effects of the BRC system. Results: The application of the BRC system spanning from the first premolar to the second molar resulted not only in buccal and distal uprighting, but also in increased buccal and distal tipping of the teeth. The premolars and the first molar were extruded, and the second molar was intruded. Conclusions: When the BRC system is applied, simultaneous distal and buccal uprighting of the premolars and molars can be achieved bilaterally using a temporary skeletal anchorage device without unnecessary movement of the anterior teeth.

    • Original Article l 2022-03-25

      Evaluation of periodontal parameters and gingival crevicular fluid cytokines in children with anterior open bite receiving passive orthodontic treatment with a spur

      Gabriel Antônio dos Anjos Tou , Ivana Márcia Alves Diniz, Marcus Vinicius Lucas Ferreira, Ricardo Alves Mesquita, Mônica Yamauti, Tarcília Aparecida Silva, Soraia Macari

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) cytokines in children with anterior open bite receiving passive orthodontic treatment with spurs. Methods: Twenty children with indications for interceptive orthodontic treatment, an anterior open bite, and good oral hygiene and periodontal health were included in this study. GCF samples were collected from the mandibular and maxillary central incisors before (baseline) and 24 hours and 7 days after spur bonding. Clinical and periodontal examinations and cytokine analyses were performed. Results: At 7 days after spur attachment, gingival bleeding in the mandibular group was increased relative to that in the maxillary group. Visible plaque was correlated with gingival bleeding at 7 days and the GCF volume at 24 hours after spur attachment. Compared with those at baseline, interleukin (IL)-8 levels in the maxillary group and IL-1β levels in both tooth groups increased at both 24 hours and 7 days and at 7 days, respectively. At 24 hours, IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels were higher in the maxillary group than in the mandibular group. Cytokine production was positively correlated with increased GCF volume, but not with gingival bleeding, visible plaque, or probing depth. Conclusions: Although orthodontic treatment with spurs in children resulted in increased gingival bleeding around the mandibular incisors, IL levels were higher around the maxillary incisors and not correlated with periodontal parameters. Increased cytokine levels in GCF may be associated with the initial tooth movement during open bite correction with a passive orthodontic appliance in children.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-05-25

      Influence of late removal after treatment on the removal torque of microimplants

      Ho-Jin Kim , Hyo-Sang Park

      Abstract : Objective: To compare the removal torque of microimplants upon post-use removal and post-retention removal and to assess the influencing factors. Methods: The sample group included 241 patients (age, 30.25 ± 12.2 years) with 568 microimplants. They were divided into the post-use (microimplants removed immediately after use or treatment) and post-retention (microimplants removed during the retention period) removal groups. The removal torque in both groups was assessed according to sex, age, placement site and method, and microimplant size. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed for evaluating variables influencing the removal torque. Results: The mean period of total in-bone stay of microimplants in the postretention removal group (1,237 days) was approximately two times longer than that in the post-use removal group (656.28 days). The removal torques in the post-retention removal group (range, 4–5 N cm) were also higher than those in the post-use removal group. The mandible and pre-drilling groups demonstrated higher placement and removal torques than did the maxilla and no-drilling groups, respectively. In the no-drilling post-use removal group, the placement torque and microimplant length positively correlated with the removal torque. In the post-retention removal group, unloading in-bone stay period and microimplant diameter positively correlated with the removal torque in the no-drilling and pre-drilling methods, respectively. Conclusions: The removal torques differed according to the orthodontic loading and removal time of microimplants. With prolonged retention of microimplants inserted using the no-drilling method, the removal torque was clinically acceptable and positively correlated with the unloading in-bone stay period.

    • Original Article l 2022-01-25

      Evaluation of accuracy of 3-dimensional printed dental models in reproducing intermaxillary relational measurements: Based on inter-operator differences

      Won-joon Choi , Su-jung Lee, Cheol-Hyun Moon

      Abstract : Objective: Although, digital models have recently been used in orthodontic clinics, physical models are still needed for a multitude of reasons. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the printed models can replace the plaster models by evaluating their accuracy in reproducing intermaxillary relationships and by appraising the clinicians’ ability to measure the printed models. Methods: Twenty sets of patients’ plaster models with well-established occlusal relationships were selected. Models were scanned using an intraoral scanner (Trios 3, 3Shape Dental System) by a single operator. Printed models were made with ZMD-1000B light-curing resin using the stereolithography method 3-dimensional printer. Validity, reliability, and reproducibility were evaluated using measurements obtained by three operators. Results: In evaluation of validity, all items showed no significant differences between measurements taken from plaster and printed models. In evaluation for reliability, significant differences were found in the distance between the gingival zeniths of #23–#33 (DZL_3) for the plaster models and at #17–#43 (DZCM_1) for the printed models. In evaluation for reproducibility, the plaster models showed significant differences between operators at midline, and printed models showed significant differences at 7 measurements including #17–#47 (DZR_7). Conclusions: The validity and reliability of intermaxillary relationships as determined by the printed model were clinically acceptable, but the evaluation of reproducibility revealed significant inter-operator differences. To use printed models as substitutes for plaster models, additional studies on their accuracies in measuring intermaxillary relationship are required.

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