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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

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    • Original Article l 2022-11-25

      Enhancement of bioactivity and osseointegration in Ti-6Al-4V orthodontic mini-screws coated with calcium phosphate on the TiO2 nanotube layer

      Seon-Mi Byeon , Hye-Ji Kim, Min-Ho Lee, Tae-Sung Bae

      Abstract : Objective: This study evaluated the effect of cyclic pre-calcification treatment on the improvement of bioactivity and osseointegration of Ti-6Al-4V mini-screws. Methods: The experimental groups were: an untreated group (UT), an anodized and heat-treated group (AH), and an anodized treatment followed by cyclic pre-calcification treatment group (ASPH). A bioactive material with calcium phosphate was coated on the mini-screws, and its effects on bioactivity and osseointegration were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo tests of following implantation in the rat tibia. Results: As a result of immersing the ASPH group in simulated body fluid for 2 days, protrusions appearing in the initial stage of hydroxyapatite precipitation were observed. On the 3rd day, the protrusions became denser, other protrusions overlapped and grew on it, and the calcium and phosphorus concentrations increased. The removal torque values increased significantly in the following order: UT group (2.08 ± 0.67 N·cm), AH group (4.10 ± 0.72 N·cm), and ASPH group (6.58 ± 0.66 N·cm) with the ASPH group showing the highest value (p < 0.05). In the ASPH group, new bone was observed that was connected to the threads, and it was confirmed that a bony bridge connected to the adjacent bone was formed. Conclusions: In conclusion, it was found that the surface treatment method used in the ASPH group improved the bioactivity and osseointegration of Ti-6Al-4V orthodontic mini-screws.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2024-01-25

      Accuracy of posteroanterior cephalogram landmarks and measurements identification using a cascaded convolutional neural network algorithm: A multicenter study

      Sung-Hoon Han , Jisup Lim , Jun-Sik Kim , Jin-Hyoung Cho , Mihee Hong , Minji Kim , Su-Jung Kim , Yoon-Ji Kim , Young Ho Kim , Sung-Hoon Lim , Sang Jin Sung , Kyung-Hwa Kang , Seung-Hak Baek , Sung-Kwon Choi , Namkug Kim

      Abstract : Objective: To quantify the effects of midline-related landmark identification on midline deviation measurements in posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms using a cascaded convolutional neural network (CNN). Methods: A total of 2,903 PA cephalogram images obtained from 9 university hospitals were divided into training, internal validation, and test sets (n = 2,150, 376, and 377). As the gold standard, 2 orthodontic professors marked the bilateral landmarks, including the frontozygomatic suture point and latero-orbitale (LO), and the midline landmarks, including the crista galli, anterior nasal spine (ANS), upper dental midpoint (UDM), lower dental midpoint (LDM), and menton (Me). For the test, Examiner-1 and Examiner-2 (3-year and 1-year orthodontic residents) and the Cascaded-CNN models marked the landmarks. After point-to-point errors of landmark identification, the successful detection rate (SDR) and distance and direction of the midline landmark deviation from the midsagittal line (ANS-mid, UDM-mid, LDM-mid, and Me-mid) were measured, and statistical analysis was performed. Results: The cascaded-CNN algorithm showed a clinically acceptable level of point-to-point error (1.26 mm vs. 1.57 mm in Examiner-1 and 1.75 mm in Examiner-2). The average SDR within the 2 mm range was 83.2%, with high accuracy at the LO (right, 96.9%; left, 97.1%), and UDM (96.9%). The absolute measurement errors were less than 1 mm for ANS-mid, UDM-mid, and LDM-mid compared with the gold standard. Conclusions: The cascaded-CNN model may be considered an effective tool for the auto-identification of midline landmarks and quantification of midline deviation in PA cephalograms of adult patients, regardless of variations in the image acquisition method.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2023-05-25

      Artificial neural network model for predicting sex using dental and orthodontic measurements

      Sandra Anic-Milosevic , Natasa Medancic, Martina Calusic-Sarac, Jelena Dumancic, Hrvoje Brkic

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate sex-specific correlations between the dimensions of permanent canines and the anterior Bolton ratio and to construct a statistical model capable of identifying the sex of an unknown subject. Methods: Odontometric data were collected from 121 plaster study models derived from Caucasian orthodontic patients aged 12–17 years at the pretreatment stage by measuring the dimensions of the permanent canines and Bolton's anterior ratio. Sixteen variables were collected for each subject: 12 dimensions of the permanent canines, sex, age, anterior Bolton ratio, and Angle’s classification. Data were analyzed using inferential statistics, principal component analysis, and artificial neural network modeling. Results: Sex-specific differences were identified in all odontometric variables, and an artificial neural network model was prepared that used odontometric variables for predicting the sex of the participants with an accuracy of > 80%. This model can be applied for forensic purposes, and its accuracy can be further improved by adding data collected from new subjects or adding new variables for existing subjects. The improvement in the accuracy of the model was demonstrated by an increase in the percentage of accurate predictions from 72.0–78.1% to 77.8–85.7% after the anterior Bolton ratio and age were added. Conclusions: The described artificial neural network model combines forensic dentistry and orthodontics to improve subject recognition by expanding the initial space of odontometric variables and adding orthodontic parameters.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2023-09-25

      Evaluation of pain experienced by orthodontic patients following elastomeric separator insertion: A cross-sectional study

      Hareem Sultan , Hana Pervez, Sidra Maqsood, Wajeeh Syed Zeeshan

      Abstract : Objective: Pain following the insertion of separators and archwires varies with age, sex, race, ethnicity, threshold, and health status. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of pain in orthodontic patients after the insertion of elastomeric separators, its effects on daily life, and its association with age and sex in a population not previously studied in this regard. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 130 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment included collecting data on demographics, pain experienced following the placement of separators, time of onset, duration, characteristics, change in dietary pattern or chewing side, intake of analgesics, and severity of pain on the Wong Baker’s scale. The results are reported as counts and percentages. Associations between sex and age were evaluated using Pearson’s chi-square test. Results: Among the 130 patients, 56.2% were 9–20 years old, 63.8% experienced pain following the insertion of separators, 22.9% had their first episode of pain at 4 hours, 56.6% experienced intermittent pain, and 37.3% experienced discomfort; 18.1% males and 81.9% females experienced pain following the insertion of separators. Pearson’s chi-square test showed a significant association between pain and sex (P = 0.04). Most patients (37.3%) reported “hurts little more” for pain intensity on Wong Baker’s scale and 21.7% reported all four quadrants as sites of pain. Conclusions: The pain experienced after separator insertion was associated with sex and age. Females experienced more pain than males and patients between the age range of 21 and 36 years suffered more pain during mastication than between 9 and 20 years old.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2023-09-25

      Effect of 125 Hz and 150 Hz vibrational frequency electric toothbrushes on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and prostaglandin E2 levels

      Anadha N. Gujar , Prashantha Govinakovi Shivamurthy

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate the effects of an electric toothbrush with vibrational frequencies of 125 Hz and 150 Hz on the orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) rate and the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Methods: Out of thirty patients (aged 18–25 years; 16 females and 14 males), ten patients each formed Group A and B, who used electric toothbrushes with 125 Hz and 150 Hz vibrations, respectively. The remaining ten patients (Group C) served as the control group and did not use electric toothbrushes. The rate of OTM and levels of PGE2 using microcapillary pipettes were calculated before the start of retraction (T0), on the 30th day (T1), on the 60th day (T2), and on the 90th day (T3) from the start of retraction in all the groups. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the mean OTM values and PGE2 levels in all three groups at different time intervals, with the maximum difference seen in Group B compared to Group A and least in Group C at T1, T2 and T3. Conclusions: The rate of OTM and levels of PGE2 were highest in patients who used an electric toothbrush with 150 Hz mechanical vibration compared to those who used an electric toothbrush with 125 Hz mechanical vibration and least in patients who did not use an electric toothbrush. Mechanical vibration led to an increase in the PGE2 levels and accelerated the OTM.

      Abstract  
    • Corrigendum l 2022-09-25

      Correction to: Treatment of anterior open bites using non-extraction clear aligner therapy in adult patients

      Heeyeon Suh, Bella Shen Garnett, Kimberly Mahood, Noor Mahjoub, Robert L. Boyd, Heesoo Oh
    • Reader’s Forum l 2023-09-25

      READER’S FORUM

      Vasiliki Koretsi
    • Original Article l 2023-11-25

      Effects of 4-hexylresorcinol on facial skeletal development in growing rats: Considerations for diabetes

      Hannah Jeong , Jwa-Young Kim, Xiangguo Che, Je-Yong Choi, Insan Jang , Seong-Gon Kim

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate the long-term effects of 4-hexylresorcinol (4HR) on facial skeletal growth in growing male rats, with a focus on diabetic animal models. Methods: Forty male rats were used. Of them, type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 animals by administering 40 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ), and they were assigned to either the STZ or 4HR-injected group (STZ/4HR group). The remaining 20 healthy rats were divided into control and 4HR groups. We administered 4HR subcutaneously at a weekly dose of 10 mg/kg until the rats were euthanized. At 16 weeks of age, whole blood was collected, and micro-computed tomography of the skull and femur was performed. Results: All craniofacial linear measurements were smaller in the STZ group than in the control group. The mandibular molar width was significantly smaller in the 4HR group than in the control group (P = 0.031) but larger in the STZ/4HR group than in the STZ group (P = 0.011). Among the diabetic animals, the STZ/4HR group exhibited significantly greater cortical bone thickness, bone mineral density, and bone volume than the STZ group. Serum testosterone levels were also significantly higher in the STZ/4HR group than in the STZ group. Conclusions: 4HR administration may have divergent effects on mandibular growth and bone mass in healthy and diabetic rats. In the context of diabetes, 4HR appears to have beneficial effects, potentially through the modulation of mitochondrial respiration.

      Abstract  

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Clinical Journal of Korean Association of Orthodontists