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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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    • Original Article l 2021-07-25

      Effect of nicotine on orthodontic tooth movement and bone remodeling in rats

      Sung-Hee Lee , Jung-Yul Cha, Sung-Hwan Choi, Baek-il Kim, Jae-Kook Cha, Chung-Ju Hwang

      Abstract : Objective: To quantitatively analyze the effect of nicotine on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and bone remodeling in rats using micro-computed tomography and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase immunostaining. Methods: Thirty-nine adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: group A, 0.5 mL normal saline (n = 9, 3 per 3, 7, and 14 days); group B, 0.83 mg/kg nicotine (n = 15, 5 per 3, 7, and 14 days); and group C, 1.67 mg/kg nicotine (n = 15, 5 per 3, 7, and 14 days). Each animal received daily intraperitoneal injections of nicotine/saline from the day of insertion of identical 30-g orthodontic force delivery systems. A 5-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil spring was applied between the left maxillary first molar (M1) and the two splinted incisors. The rate of OTM and volumetric bone changes were measured using micro-computed tomography. Osteoclasts were counted on the mesial alveolar bone surface of the distobuccal root of M1. Six dependent outcome variables, including the intermolar distance, bone volume fraction, bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, trabecular volume, and osteoclast number, were summarized using simple descriptive statistics. Nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to evaluate differences among groups at 3, 7, and 14 days of OTM. Results: All six dependent outcome variables showed no statistically significant among group-differences at 3, 7, and 14 days. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that nicotine does not affect OTM and bone remodeling, although fluctuations during the different stages of OTM in the nicotine groups should be elucidated in further prospective studies.

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    • Original Article l 2020-03-25

      Changes in maximum lip-closing force after extraction and nonextraction orthodontic treatments

      Tae-Hyun Choi , So-Hyun Kim, Cheul Kim, Yoon-Ah Kook, Brent E. Larson, and Nam-Ki Lee

      Abstract : ObjectiveThe aims of the present study were to evaluate the changes in the maximum lip-closing force (MLF) after orthodontic treatment with or without premolar extractions and verify the correlation of these changes with dentoskeletal changes.MethodsIn total, 17 women who underwent nonextraction orthodontic treatment and 15 women who underwent orthodontic treatment with extraction of all four first premolars were included in this retrospective study. For all patients, lateral cephalograms and dental models were measured before (T0) and after (T1) treatment. In addition, MLF was measured at both time points using the Lip De Cum LDC-110R? device. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate changes in clinical variables and MLF and their correlations.ResultsBoth groups showed similar skeletal patterns, although the extraction group showed greater proclination of the maxillary and mandibular incisors and lip protrusion compared to the nonextraction group at T0. MLF at T0 was comparable between the two groups. The reduction in the arch width and depth and incisor retroclination from T0 to T1 were more pronounced in the extraction group than in the nonextraction group. MLF in the extraction group significantly increased during the treatment period, and this increase was significantly greater than that in the nonextraction group. The increase in MLF was found to be correlated with the increase in the interincisal angle and decrease in the intermolar width, arch depth, and incisor?mandibular plane angle.ConclusionsThis study suggests that MLF increases to a greater extent during extraction orthodontic treatment than during nonextraction orthodontic treatment.

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    • Reader's Forum l 2020-05-25

      READER’S FORUM

      Seo-Rin Jeong, Hyein Kim
    • Original Article l 2020-03-25

      Sex-, growth pattern-, and growth status-related variability in maxillary and mandibular buccal cortical thickness and density

      Sydney Schneider , Vaibhav Gandhi, Madhur Upadhyay, Veerasathpurush Allareddy, Aditya Tadinada, and Sumit Yadav

      Abstract : ObjectiveThe primary objective of this study was to quantitatively analyze the bone parameters (thickness and density) at four different interdental areas from the distal region of the canine to the mesial region of the second molar in the maxilla and the mandible. The secondary aim was to compare and contrast the bone parameters at these specific locations in terms of sex, growth status, and facial type.MethodsThis retrospective cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) study reviewed 290 CBCT images of patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Cortical bone thickness in millimeters (mm) and density in pixel intensity value were measured for the regions (1) between the canine and first premolar, (2) between the first and second premolars, (3) between the second premolar and first molar, and (4) between the first and second molars. At each location, the bone thickness and density were measured at distances of 2, 6, and 10 mm from the alveolar crest.ResultsThe sex comparison (male vs. female) in cortical bone thickness showed no significant difference (p > 0.001). The bone density in growing subjects was significantly (p < 0.001) lower than that in non-growing subjects for most locations. There was no significant difference (p > 0.001) in bone parameters in relation to facial pattern in the maxilla and mandible for most sites.ConclusionsThere was no significant sex-related difference in cortical bone thickness. The buccal cortical bone density was higher in females than in males. Bone parameters were similar for subjects with hyperdivergent, hypodivergent, and normodivergent facial patterns.

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    • Original Article l 2021-09-25

      Comparison of the effects of horizontal and vertical micro-osteoperforations on the biological response and tooth movement in rabbits

      Seok-gon Kim , Yoon-Ah Kook , Hee Jin Lim, Patrick Park, Won Lee, Jae Hyun Park, Mohamed Bayome, Yoonji Kim

      Abstract : Objective: This study aimed to compare the amount of tooth movement after multiple horizontal (MH) and single vertical (SV) micro-osteoperforations (MOPs), and evaluate the histological changes after orthodontic force application in rabbits. Methods: The mandibles of 24 white rabbits were subjected to two experimental interventions: MH and SV MOPs. Defect volume of the MOPs between the two groups was kept similar. A force of 100 cN was applied via a coil spring between the incisor teeth and the first premolars. The amount of tooth movement was measured. Differences in the amount of tooth movement and bone variables at three time points and between the two groups were evaluated using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: The first premolar showed a mesial movement of 1.47 mm in the MH group and 1.84 mm in the SV group, which was significantly different at Week 3 (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in bone volume and bone fraction between the groups. Tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase-positive cell count was also significantly greater at Week 3 than at Week 1 in both the SV and MH groups. Conclusions: The amount of tooth movement showed significant differences between Weeks 1 and 3 in the SV and MH MOP groups, but showed no differences between the two groups. Therefore, SV MOP could be considered an effective tool for enhancing tooth movement, especially for molar distalization, uprighting, and protraction to an edentulous area.

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    • Case Report l 2020-03-25

      Growth observation and orthodontic treatment of a hemifacial microsomia patient treated with distraction osteogenesis

      Nam Hyung Chung , So Jin Yang, Jae Yoen Kang, Young-Mi Jeon, and Jong Ghee Kim

      Abstract : Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) patients may experience emotional withdrawal during their growth period due to their abnormal facial appearance. Distraction osteogenesis at an early age to improve their appearance can encourage these patients. Some abnormalities of the affected side can be overcome by distraction osteogenesis at an early age. However, differences in the growth rate between the affected and unaffected sides during the rest of the growth period are inevitable due to the characteristics of HFM. Therefore, re-evaluation should be performed after completion of growth in order to achieve stable occlusion through either orthognathic surgery or camouflage orthodontic treatment. An eight-year-old patient visited the clinic exhibiting features of HFM with slight mandibular involvement. He received phase I treatment with distraction osteogenesis and a functional appliance. Distraction osteogenesis was performed at the right ramus, which resulted in an open bite at the right posterior dentition. After distraction osteogenesis, a functional appliance and partial fixed appliance were used to achieve extrusion of the affected posterior dentition and settlement of the occlusion adjustment on the unaffected posterior dentition. The patient visited the clinic regularly for follow-up assessments, and at the age of 20 years, he showed facial asymmetry of the mandible, which had deviated to the right side. He received orthodontic treatment to improve the occlusion of his posterior dentition after the growth period. Without orthognathic surgery, stable occlusion and a satisfactory facial appearance were obtained through camouflage orthodontic treatment.

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    • Original Article l 2021-11-25

      Miniscrew insertion sites of infrazygomatic crest and mandibular buccal shelf in different vertical craniofacial patterns: A cone-beam computed tomography study

      Murilo Matias , Carlos Flores-Mir, Márcio Rodrigues de Almeida, Bruno da Silva Vieira, Karina Maria Salvatore de Freitas, Daniela Calabrese Nunes, Marcos Cezar Ferreira, Weber Ursi

      Abstract : Objective: To identify optimal areas for the insertion of extra-alveolar miniscrews into the infrazygomatic crest (IZC) and mandibular buccal shelf (MBS), using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in patients with different craniofacial patterns. Methods: CBCT reconstructions of untreated individuals were used to evaluate the IZC and MBS areas. The participants were divided into three groups, based on the craniofacial pattern, namely, brachyfacial (n = 15; mean age, 23.3 years), mesofacial (n = 15; mean age, 19.24 years), and dolichofacial (n = 15; mean age, 17.79 years). In the IZC, the evaluated areas were at 11, 13, and 15 mm above the buccal cusp tips of the right and left first molars. In the MBS, the evaluated areas were at the projections of the first molars’ distal roots and second molars’ mesial and distal roots, at a 4- and 8-mm distance from the cementoenamel junction. Intergroup comparisons were performed with analysis of variance and the Tukey test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the IZC bone thickness among the groups. For MBS bone availability, some comparisons revealed no difference; meanwhile, other comparisons revealed increased MBS bone thickness in the brachyfacial (first molars distal roots) and dolichofacial (second molars mesial and distal roots) patterns. Conclusions: There was no significant difference in the IZC bone thickness among the groups. The facial skeletal pattern may affect the availability of ideal bone thickness for the insertion of extra-alveolar miniscrews in the MBS region; however, this variability is unlikely to be clinically meaningful.

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    • Original Article l 2021-09-25

      Effectiveness of low-level laser therapy and chewing gum in reducing orthodontic pain: A randomized controlled trial

      Fatih Celebi , Ali Altug Bicakci, Ufuk Kelesoglu

      Abstract : Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chewing gum and low-level laser therapy in alleviating orthodontic pain induced by the initial archwire. Methods: Patients with 3–6 mm maxillary crowding who planned to receive non-extraction orthodontic treatment were recruited for the study. Sixty-three participants (33 females and 30 males) were randomly allocated into three groups: laser, chewing gum, and control. In the laser group, a gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser with a wavelength of 820 nm was used to apply a single dose immediately after orthodontic treatment began. In the chewing gum group, sugar-free gum was chewed three times for 20 minutes— immediately after starting treatment, and at the twenty-fourth and forty-eighth hours of treatment. Pain perception was measured using a visual analog scale at the second, sixth, and twenty-fourth hours, and on the second, third, and seventh days. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups at any measured time point (p > 0.05). The highest pain scores were detected at the twenty-fourth hour of treatment in all groups. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study, we could not detect whether low-level laser therapy and chewing gum had any clinically significant effect on orthodontic pain. Different results may be obtained with a higher number of participants or using lasers with different wavelengths and specifications. Although the study had a sufficient number of participants according to statistical analysis, higher number of participants could have provided more definitive outcomes.

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    • Original Article l 2021-11-25

      Differences in the heritability of craniofacial skeletal and dental characteristics between twin pairs with skeletal Class I and II malocclusions

      Heon-Mook Park , Pil-Jong Kim, Joohon Sung, Yun-Mi Song, Hong-Gee Kim, Young Ho Kim, Seung-Hak Baek

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate differences in the heritability of skeletodental characteristics between twin pairs with skeletal Class I and Class II malocclusions. Methods: Forty Korean adult twin pairs were divided into Class I (C-I) group (0° ≤ angle between point A, nasion, and point B [ANB]) ≤ 4°; mean age, 40.7 years) and Class II (C-II) group (ANB > 4°; mean age, 43.0 years). Each group comprised 14 monozygotic and 6 dizygotic twin pairs. Thirty-three cephalometric variables were measured using lateral cephalograms and were categorized as the anteroposterior, vertical, dental, mandible, and cranial base characteristics. The ACE model was used to calculate heritability (A > 0.7, high heritability). Thereafter, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. Results: Twin pairs in C-I group exhibited high heritability values in the facial anteroposterior characteristics, inclination of the maxillary and mandibular incisors, mandibular body length, and cranial base angles. Twin pairs in C-II group showed high heritability values in vertical facial height, ramus height, effective mandibular length, and cranial base length. PCA extracted eight components with 88.3% in the C-I group and seven components with 91.0% cumulative explanation in the C-II group. Conclusions: Differences in the heritability of skeletodental characteristics between twin pairs with skeletal Class I and II malocclusions might provide valuable information for growth prediction and treatment planning.

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Journal Info.

November, 2021
Vol.51 No.6

Frequency: 6 times

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Journal Impact Factor

  • 1.372
    2020 IF

  • 1.737
    5-Year IF

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Clinical Journal of Korean Association of Orthodontists