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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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    • Original Article l 2020-01-25

      Comparison of three midsagittal planes for three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography head reorientation

      Eon-Hwa Lee , Hyung-Seog Yu, Kee-Joon Lee, Sang-Sun Han, Hwi-Dong Jung, and Chung-Ju Hwang

      Abstract : ObjectiveThis study compared three prominent midsagittal planes (MSPs) to identify the MSP that best approximates the true symmetrical MSP.MethodsForty-three patients (mean age, 23.0 ± 8.20 years) were grouped as follows: group 1 consisted of 10 patients with skeletal Class I and a menton (Me) deviation of < 2 mm; group 2, 11 patients with skeletal Class III and a Me deviation < 2 mm; group 3, nine patients with skeletal Class III and a Me deviation of 2 to less than 4 mm; and group 4, 13 patients with skeletal Class III and an Me deviation ≥ 4 mm. The candidate MSPs were established by three-dimensional (3D) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) reorientation methods (RMs): (1) the MSP perpendicular to the Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane while passing through the crista galli and basion; (2) the MSP including the nasion, incisive foramen, and basion; (3) the MSP including the nasion, anterior nasal spine, and posterior nasal spine. The mean absolute distances (MADs) to the MSPs were calculated from the coordinates of 1,548 points on 129 CBCT images. The differences in the values of the 3D coordinates among RMs were compared.ResultsThe MADs of the three RMs showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Most of the differences in values of the coordinates were not significant among RMs.ConclusionsAlthough the differences in distance among the three MSPs were minor, the MSP perpendicular to the FH plane while passing through the crista galli and basion best approximated the true symmetrical MSP.

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    • Original Article l 2021-09-25

      Effectiveness of low-level laser therapy and chewing gum in reducing orthodontic pain: A randomized controlled trial

      Fatih Celebi , Ali Altug Bicakci, Ufuk Kelesoglu

      Abstract : Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chewing gum and low-level laser therapy in alleviating orthodontic pain induced by the initial archwire. Methods: Patients with 3–6 mm maxillary crowding who planned to receive non-extraction orthodontic treatment were recruited for the study. Sixty-three participants (33 females and 30 males) were randomly allocated into three groups: laser, chewing gum, and control. In the laser group, a gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser with a wavelength of 820 nm was used to apply a single dose immediately after orthodontic treatment began. In the chewing gum group, sugar-free gum was chewed three times for 20 minutes— immediately after starting treatment, and at the twenty-fourth and forty-eighth hours of treatment. Pain perception was measured using a visual analog scale at the second, sixth, and twenty-fourth hours, and on the second, third, and seventh days. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups at any measured time point (p > 0.05). The highest pain scores were detected at the twenty-fourth hour of treatment in all groups. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study, we could not detect whether low-level laser therapy and chewing gum had any clinically significant effect on orthodontic pain. Different results may be obtained with a higher number of participants or using lasers with different wavelengths and specifications. Although the study had a sufficient number of participants according to statistical analysis, higher number of participants could have provided more definitive outcomes.

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    • Case Report l 2020-01-25

      Comprehensive orthodontic treatment of a young girl with an odontogenic keratocyst and impacted teeth in the mandible

      Won-Kyeong Baik , Hyoung-Seon Baik, and Sung-Hwan Choi

      Abstract : Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are one of the most aggressive cysts in the oral and maxillofacial area because of their high recurrence rate and infiltrative behavior. In growing patients with OKCs, a radical treatment approach might cause numerous complications, including the disturbance of jaw growth and loss of the involved tooth. This case report describes successful comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with marsupialization of the cyst in a young girl who exhibited an OKC with impacted teeth. The 10-year-old girl presented with an OKC extending from the mandibular symphysis through the left mandibular body, with ectopic impaction of the mandibular left canine and first premolar, as well as congenitally missing bilateral mandibular second premolars. Interestingly, spontaneous improvement of the positions of the ectopic impacted teeth, along with a reduction in the size of the cyst, occurred during marsupialization. The sequential use of removable and fixed appliances enabled orthodontic traction of the impacted teeth. The treatment outcome was stable at 2.5 years after the end of the treatment. We speculate that comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with marsupialization can be an effective treatment strategy for patients with OKCs, especially when they are encountered in young, growing patients with impacted teeth.

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    • Original Article l 2020-01-25

      Accuracy and reliability of measurements performed using two different software programs on digital models generated using laser and computed tomography plaster model scanners

      Leonardo T. Camardella , Edwin M. Ongkosuwito, E. Willemijn Penning, Anne Marie Kuijpers-Jagtman, Oswaldo V. Vilella, and K. Hero Breuning

      Abstract : ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to compare the accuracy and reliability of measurements performed using two different software programs on digital models generated using two types of plaster model scanners (a laser scanner and a computed tomography [CT] scanner).MethodsThirty plaster models were scanned with a 3Shape laser scanner and with a Flash CT scanner. Two examiners performed measurements on plaster models by using digital calipers and on digital models by using Ortho Analyzer (3Shape) and Digimodel® (OrthoProof) software programs. Forty-two measurements, including tooth diameter, crown height, overjet, overbite, intercanine and intermolar distances, and sagittal relationship, were obtained.ResultsStatistically significant differences were not found between the plaster and digital model measurements (ANOVA); however, some discrepancies were clinically relevant. Plaster and digital model measurements made using the two scanning methods showed high intraclass coefficient correlation values and acceptable 95% limits of agreement in the Bland-Altman analysis. The software used did not influence the accuracy of measurements.ConclusionsDigital models generated from plaster casts by using laser and CT scanning and measured using two different software programs are accurate, and the measurements are reliable. Therefore, both fabrication methods and software could be used interchangeably.

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    • Original Article l 2021-11-25

      Effects of self-ligating brackets and other factors influencing orthodontic treatment outcomes: A prospective cohort study

      Min-Ho Jung

      Abstract : Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of self-ligating brackets (SBs) and other factors that influence orthodontic treatment outcomes. Methods: This two-armed cohort study included consecutively treated patients in a private practice. The patients were asked to choose between SBs and conventional brackets (CBs); if any patient did not have a preference, he or she was randomly allocated to the CB or SB group. All patients were treated using an identical archwire sequence. Evaluated parameters were as follows: treatment duration, number of bracket failures, poor oral hygiene, poor elastic wear, extraction, use of orthodontic mini-implants (OMI), OMI failure, American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) Discrepancy Index (DI), arch length discrepancy, and ABO Cast-Radiograph Evaluation (CRE) score. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to generate the equation for prediction of the CRE. Results: The final sample comprised 134 patients with an average age of 22.73 years. The average DI, CRE, and treatment duration were 21.81, 14.25, and 28.63 months, respectively. Analysis of covariance showed a significant difference in CRE between the CB and SB groups after adjusting for the effects of confounding variables. Stepwise regression analysis using four variables, namely extraction, SB use, poor elastic wear, and additional appliance use, could explain only 25.2% of the variance in the CRE. Conclusions: Although the CRE was significantly better for CBs than for SBs, the clinical significance of this result seems to be limited. Extraction, SB use, poor elastic wear, and additional appliance use may have significant effects on treatment outcomes.

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    • Original Article l 2020-03-25

      Sex-, growth pattern-, and growth status-related variability in maxillary and mandibular buccal cortical thickness and density

      Sydney Schneider , Vaibhav Gandhi, Madhur Upadhyay, Veerasathpurush Allareddy, Aditya Tadinada, and Sumit Yadav

      Abstract : ObjectiveThe primary objective of this study was to quantitatively analyze the bone parameters (thickness and density) at four different interdental areas from the distal region of the canine to the mesial region of the second molar in the maxilla and the mandible. The secondary aim was to compare and contrast the bone parameters at these specific locations in terms of sex, growth status, and facial type.MethodsThis retrospective cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) study reviewed 290 CBCT images of patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Cortical bone thickness in millimeters (mm) and density in pixel intensity value were measured for the regions (1) between the canine and first premolar, (2) between the first and second premolars, (3) between the second premolar and first molar, and (4) between the first and second molars. At each location, the bone thickness and density were measured at distances of 2, 6, and 10 mm from the alveolar crest.ResultsThe sex comparison (male vs. female) in cortical bone thickness showed no significant difference (p > 0.001). The bone density in growing subjects was significantly (p < 0.001) lower than that in non-growing subjects for most locations. There was no significant difference (p > 0.001) in bone parameters in relation to facial pattern in the maxilla and mandible for most sites.ConclusionsThere was no significant sex-related difference in cortical bone thickness. The buccal cortical bone density was higher in females than in males. Bone parameters were similar for subjects with hyperdivergent, hypodivergent, and normodivergent facial patterns.

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    • Original Article l 2021-09-25

      Characterization of phenotypes and predominant skeletodental patterns in pre-adolescent patients with Pierre–Robin sequence

      Il-Hyung Yang , Jee Hyeok Chung, Hyeok Joon Lee, Il-Sik Cho, Jin-Young Choi, Jong-Ho Lee, Sukwha Kim, Seung-Hak Baek

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate the phenotypes and predominant skeletodental pattern in pre-adolescent patients with Pierre–Robin sequence (PRS). Methods: The samples consisted of 26 Korean pre-adolescent PRS patients (11 boys and 15 girls; mean age at the investigation, 9.20 years) treated at the Department of Orthodontics, Seoul National University Dental Hospital between 1998 and 2019. Dental phenotypes, oral manifestation, cephalometric variables, and associated anomalies were investigated and statistically analyzed. Results: Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) were found in 34.6% of the patients (n = 9/26, 20 teeth, 2.22 teeth per patient) with 55.5% (n = 5/9) exhibiting bilaterally symmetric missing pattern. The mandibular incisors were the most common CMT (n = 11/20). Predominant skeletodental patterns included Class II relationship (57.7%), posteriorly positioned maxilla (76.9%) and mandible (92.3%), hyper-divergent pattern (92.3%), high gonial angle (65.4%), small mandibular body length to anterior cranial base ratio (65.4%), linguoversion of the maxillary incisors (76.9%), and linguoversion of the mandibular incisors (80.8%). Incomplete cleft palate (CP) of hard palate with complete CP of soft palate (61.5%) was the most frequently observed, followed by complete CP of hard and soft palate (19.2%) and CP of soft palate (19.2%) (p < 0.05). However, CP severity did not show a significant correlation with any cephalometric variables except incisor mandibular plane angle (p < 0.05). Five craniofacial and 15 extra-craniofacial anomalies were observed (53.8% patients); this implicated the need of routine screening. Conclusions: The results might provide primary data for individualized diagnosis and treatment planning for pre-adolescent PRS patients despite a single institution-based data.

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    • Reader’s Forum l 2020-01-25

      Reader's Forum

      Il-Hyung Yang
    • Original Article l 2020-01-25

      Distribution and phenotypes of hemifacial microsomia and its association with other anomalies

      Il-Hyung Yang , Jee Hyeok Chung, Sunjin Yim, Il-Sik Cho, Seung-Weon Lim, Kikap Kim, Sukwha Kim, Jin-Young Choi, Jong-Ho Lee, Myung-Jin Kim, and Seung-Hak Baek

      Abstract : ObjectiveTo investigate the distribution and phenotypes of hemifacial microsomia (HFM) and its association with other anomalies.MethodsThis study included 249 Korean patients with HFM, whose charts, photographs, radiographs, and/or computed tomography scans acquired during 1998–2018 were available from Seoul National University Hospital and Dental Hospital. Prevalence according to sex, side involvement, degree of mandibular deformity, compensatory growth of the mandibular body, and Angle's classification, and its association with other anomalies were statistically analyzed.ResultsPrevalence was not different between male and female patients (55.0% vs. 45.0%, p > 0.05). Unilateral HFM (UHFM) was more prevalent than bilateral HFM (BHFM) (86.3% vs. 13.7%, p < 0.001). Although distribution of the Pruzansky–Kaban types differed significantly in patients with UHFM (I, 53.0%; IIa, 18.6%; IIb, 24.7%; III, 3.7%; p < 0.001), no difference was observed in occurrence between the right and left sides (52.6% vs. 47.4%, p > 0.05). Among patients with BHFM, prevalence of different Pruzansky–Kaban types on the right and left sides was greater than that of the same type on both sides (67.6% vs. 32.4%, p < 0.05). Despite hypoplasia of the condyle/ramus complex, compensatory growth of the mandibular body on the ipsilateral side occurred in 35 patients (14.1%). Class I and II molar relationships were more prevalent than Class III molar relationships (93.2% vs. 6.8%, p < 0.001). Forty-eight patients (19.3%) had other anomalies, with 50.0% and 14.4% in the BHFM and UHFM groups (p < 0.001).ConclusionsPatients with HFM require individualized diagnosis and treatment planning because of diverse phenotypes and associations with other anomalies.

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Journal Info.

November, 2021
Vol.51 No.6

Frequency: 6 times

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Journal Impact Factor

  • 1.372
    2020 IF

  • 1.737
    5-Year IF

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Clinical Journal of Korean Association of Orthodontists