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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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    • Reader's Forum l 2022-07-25

      READER’S FORUM

      Jaehyun Kim and Jiyoung Oh
    • Original Article l 2022-07-25

      Comparison of dimensional accuracy between direct-printed and thermoformed aligners

      Nickolas Koenig , Jin-Young Choi , Julie McCray, Andrew Hayes, Patricia Schneider, Ki Beom Kim

      Abstract : Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the dimensional accuracy between thermoformed and direct-printed aligners. Methods: Three types of aligners were manufactured from the same reference standard tessellation language (STL) file: thermoformed aligners were manufactured using Zendura FLXTM (n = 12) and Essix ACETM (n = 12), and direct-printed aligners were printed using Tera HarzTM TC-85DAP 3D Printer UV Resin (n = 12). The teeth were not manipulated with any tooth-moving software in this study. The samples were sprayed with an opaque scanning spray, scanned, imported to Geomagic® Control XTM metrology software, and superimposed on the reference STL file by using the best-fit alignment algorithm. Distances between the aligner meshes and the reference STL file were measured at nine anatomical landmarks. Results: Mean absolute discrepancies in the Zendura FLXTM aligners ranged from 0.076 ± 0.057 mm to 0.260 ± 0.089 mm and those in the Essix ACETM aligners ranged from 0.188 ± 0.271 mm to 0.457 ± 0.350 mm, while in the direct-printed aligners, they ranged from 0.079 ± 0.054 mm to 0.224 ± 0.041 mm. Root mean square values, representing the overall trueness, ranged from 0.209 ± 0.094 mm for Essix ACETM, 0.188 ± 0.074 mm for Zendura FLXTM, and 0.140 ± 0.020 mm for the direct-printed aligners. Conclusions: This study showed greater trueness and precision of direct-printed aligners than thermoformed aligners.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-07-25

      Validation of three-dimensional digital model superimpositions based on palatal structures in patients with maximum anterior tooth retraction following premolar extraction

      Jing Liu , Kyong-Min Koh, Sung-Hwan Choi, Ji-Hoi Kim, Jung-Yul Cha

      Abstract : Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the superimposition accuracy of digital modes for measuring tooth movement in patients requiring anterior retraction after premolar extraction based on the proposed reference regions. Methods: Forty patients treated with bilateral maxillary first premolar extraction were divided into two groups: moderate retraction (< 7.0 mm) and maximum retraction (≥ 7.0 mm). Central incisor displacement was measured using cephalometric superimpositions and three-dimensional (3D) digital superimpositions with the 3rd or 4th ruga as the reference point. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and linear regression analyses were performed to test the significance of the differences and relationships between the two measurement techniques. Results: In the moderate retraction group, the central incisor anteroposterior displacement values did not differ significantly between 3D digital and cephalometric superimpositions. However, in the maximum-retraction group, significant differences were observed between the anteroposterior displacement evaluated by the 3rd ruga superimposition and cephalometric methods (p < 0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that 3D digital superimpositions were clinically as reliable as cephalometric superimpositions in assessing tooth movements in patients requiring moderate retraction. However, the reference point should be carefully examined in patients who require maximum retraction.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-07-25

      Predicting patient experience of Invisalign treatment: An analysis using artificial neural network

      Lin Xu , Li Mei, Ruiqi Lu, Yuan Li, Hanshi Li, Yu Li

      Abstract : Objective: Poor experience with Invisalign treatment affects patient compliance and, thus, treatment outcome. Knowing the potential discomfort level in advance can help orthodontists better prepare the patient to overcome the difficult stage. This study aimed to construct artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict patient experience in the early stages of Invisalign treatment. Methods: In total, 196 patients were enrolled. Data collection included questionnaires on pain, anxiety, and quality of life (QoL). A four-layer fully connected multilayer perception with three backpropagations was constructed to predict patient experience of the treatment. The input data comprised 17 clinical features. The partial derivative method was used to calculate the relative contributions of each input in the ANNs. Results: The predictive success rates for pain, anxiety, and QoL were 87.7%, 93.4%, and 92.4%, respectively. ANNs for predicting pain, anxiety, and QoL yielded areas under the curve of 0.963, 0.992, and 0.982, respectively. The number of teeth with lingual attachments was the most important factor affecting the outcome of negative experience, followed by the number of lingual buttons and upper incisors with attachments. Conclusions: The constructed ANNs in this preliminary study show good accuracy in predicting patient experience (i.e., pain, anxiety, and QoL) of Invisalign treatment. Artificial intelligence system developed for predicting patient comfort has potential for clinical application to enhance patient compliance.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-07-25

      Variation in adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in saliva-derived biofilms on raw materials of orthodontic brackets

      So-Hyun Park , Kyungsun Kim, Soha Cho, Dong-Hwa Chung, Sug-Joon Ahn

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate differences in the adhesion levels of the most common oral pathogens, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis , in human saliva-derived microcosm biofilms with respect to time and raw materials of orthodontic brackets. Methods: The samples were classified into three groups of bracket materials: 1) monocrystalline alumina ceramic (CR), 2) stainless steel metal (SS), and 3) polycarbonate plastic (PL), and a hydroxyapatite (HA) group was used to mimic the enamel surface. Saliva was collected from a healthy donor, and saliva-derived biofilms were grown on each sample. A real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantitatively evaluate differences in the attachment levels of total bacteria, S. mutans and P. gingivalis at days 1 and 4. Results: Adhesion of S. mutans and P. gingivalis to CR and HA was higher than the other bracket materials (SS = PL < CR = HA). Total bacteria demonstrated higher adhesion to HA than to bracket materials, but no significant differences in adhesion were observed among the bracket materials (CR = SS = PL < HA). From days 1 to 4, the adhesion of P. gingivalis decreased, while that of S. mutans and total bacteria increased, regardless of material type. Conclusions: The higher adhesion of oral pathogens, such as S. mutans and P. gingivalis to CR suggests that the use of CR brackets possibly facilitates gingival inflammation and enamel decalcification during orthodontic treatment.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-07-25

      Accuracy of artificial intelligence-assisted landmark identification in serial lateral cephalograms of Class III patients who underwent orthodontic treatment and two-jaw orthognathic surgery

      Mihee Hong , Inhwan Kim , Jin-Hyoung Cho, Kyung-Hwa Kang, Minji Kim, Su-Jung Kim, Yoon-Ji Kim, Sang-Jin Sung, Young Ho Kim, Sung-Hoon Lim, Namkug Kim , Seung-Hak Baek

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate the pattern of accuracy change in artificial intelligence-assisted landmark identification (LI) using a convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm in serial lateral cephalograms (Lat-cephs) of Class III (C-III) patients who underwent two-jaw orthognathic surgery. Methods: A total of 3,188 Lat-cephs of C-III patients were allocated into the training and validation sets (3,004 Lat-cephs of 751 patients) and test set (184 Lat-cephs of 46 patients; subdivided into the genioplasty and non-genioplasty groups, n = 23 per group) for LI. Each C-III patient in the test set had four Lat-cephs: initial (T0), pre-surgery (T1, presence of orthodontic brackets [OBs]), post-surgery (T2, presence of OBs and surgical plates and screws [S-PS]), and debonding (T3, presence of S-PS and fixed retainers [FR]). After mean errors of 20 landmarks between human gold standard and the CNN model were calculated, statistical analysis was performed. Results: The total mean error was 1.17 mm without significant difference among the four time-points (T0, 1.20 mm; T1, 1.14 mm; T2, 1.18 mm; T3, 1.15 mm). In comparison of two time-points ([T0, T1] vs. [T2, T3]), ANS, A point, and B point showed an increase in error (p < 0.01, 0.05, 0.01, respectively), while Mx6D and Md6D showeda decrease in error (all p < 0.01). No difference in errors existed at B point, Pogonion, Menton, Md1C, and Md1R between the genioplasty and non-genioplasty groups. Conclusions: The CNN model can be used for LI in serial Lat-cephs despite the presence of OB, S-PS, FR, genioplasty, and bone remodeling.

      Abstract  
    • Case Report l 2022-07-25

      Conservative orthodontic treatment for severe pathologic migration following total glossectomy: A case report

      Hai-Van Giap , Ji Yoon Jeon , Kee Deog Kim, Kee-Joon Lee

      Abstract : Glossectomy combined with radiotherapy causes different levels of tongue function disorders and leads to severe malocclusion, with poor periodontal status in cancer survivors. Although affected patients require regular access to orthodontic care, special considerations are crucial for treatment planning. This case report describes the satisfactory orthodontic management for the correction of severe dental crowding in a 43-year-old female 6 years after treatment for tongue cancer with total glossectomy combined with radiotherapy, to envision the possibility of orthodontic care for oral cancer survivors. Extraction was performed to correct dental crowding and establish proper occlusion following alignment, after considering the possibility of osteoradionecrosis. Orthodontic mini-implants were used to provide skeletal anchorage required for closure of the extraction space and intrusion of the anterior teeth. The dental crowding was corrected, and Class I occlusal relationship was established after 36 months of treatment. The treatment outcome was sustained after 15 months of retention, and long-term follow-up was recommended.

      Abstract  
    • Brief Report l 2022-07-25

      Split orthodontic airway plate: An innovation to the utilization method of conventional orthodontic airway plate for neonates with Robin sequence

      HyeRan Choo , Seong-Hun Kim, Hyo-Won Ahn, Christian F. Poets, Kyu-Rhim Chung

      Abstract : Since the emergence of neonatal infant orthodontics for treatments of cleft lip and palate with or without Robin sequence (RS) in Europe in the 1950s, advancements in design and scope of its application have been remarkable. As the first institution to adopt orthodontic airway plate (OAP) treatment in the United States in 2019, we saw a need for innovation of the original design to streamline the most labor-intensive and time-consuming aspects of OAP utilization. A solution is introduced using a systematic split expansion mechanism to re-size the OAP periodically to accommodate the neonate’s maxillary growth. To date, seven RS patients have received this modified treatment protocol at our institution. Each patient completed full treatment using only one OAP. This innovative utilization method is aptly named the split orthodontic airway plate (S-OAP). Details of the S-OAP and its modifications from conventional OAP are reported.

      Abstract  

Journal Info.

July, 2022
Vol.52 No.4

Frequency: 6 times

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  • 1.361
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  • 2.043
    5-Year IF

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Clinical Journal of Korean Association of Orthodontists