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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

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    • Original Article l 2022-07-25

      Comparison of dimensional accuracy between direct-printed and thermoformed aligners

      Nickolas Koenig , Jin-Young Choi , Julie McCray, Andrew Hayes, Patricia Schneider, Ki Beom Kim

      Abstract : Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the dimensional accuracy between thermoformed and direct-printed aligners. Methods: Three types of aligners were manufactured from the same reference standard tessellation language (STL) file: thermoformed aligners were manufactured using Zendura FLXTM (n = 12) and Essix ACETM (n = 12), and direct-printed aligners were printed using Tera HarzTM TC-85DAP 3D Printer UV Resin (n = 12). The teeth were not manipulated with any tooth-moving software in this study. The samples were sprayed with an opaque scanning spray, scanned, imported to Geomagic® Control XTM metrology software, and superimposed on the reference STL file by using the best-fit alignment algorithm. Distances between the aligner meshes and the reference STL file were measured at nine anatomical landmarks. Results: Mean absolute discrepancies in the Zendura FLXTM aligners ranged from 0.076 ± 0.057 mm to 0.260 ± 0.089 mm and those in the Essix ACETM aligners ranged from 0.188 ± 0.271 mm to 0.457 ± 0.350 mm, while in the direct-printed aligners, they ranged from 0.079 ± 0.054 mm to 0.224 ± 0.041 mm. Root mean square values, representing the overall trueness, ranged from 0.209 ± 0.094 mm for Essix ACETM, 0.188 ± 0.074 mm for Zendura FLXTM, and 0.140 ± 0.020 mm for the direct-printed aligners. Conclusions: This study showed greater trueness and precision of direct-printed aligners than thermoformed aligners.

    • Original Article l 2022-05-25

      Treatment of anterior open bites using non-extraction clear aligner therapy in adult patients

      Heeyeon Suh , Bella Shen Garnett, Kimberly Mahood, Noor Mahjoub, Robert L. Boyd, Heesoo Oh

      Abstract : Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and mechanism of clear aligner therapy for the correction of anterior open bite in adult nonextraction cases. Methods: Sixty-nine adult patients with anterior open bite were enrolled and classified into Angle’s Class I, II, and III groups. Fifty patients presented with skeletal open bite (mandibular plane angle [MPA] ≥ 38°), whereas 19 presented with dental open bite. Fifteen cephalometric landmarks were identified before (T1) and after (T2) treatment. The magnitudes of planned and actual movements of the incisors and molars were calculated. Results: Positive overbite was achieved in 94% patients, with a mean final overbite of 1.1 ± 0.8 mm. The mean change in overbite was 3.3 ± 1.4 mm. With clear aligners alone, 0.36 ± 0.58 mm of maxillary molar intrusion was achieved. Compared with the Class I group, the Class II group showed greater maxillary molar intrusion and MPA reduction. The Class III group showed greater mandibular incisor extrusion with no significant vertical skeletal changes. Conclusions: Clear aligners can be effective in controlling the vertical dimension and correcting mild to moderate anterior open bite in adult nonextraction cases. The treatment mechanism for Class III patients significantly differed from that for Class I and Class II patients. Maxillary incisor extrusion in patients with dental open bite and MPA reduction with mandibular incisor extrusion in patients with skeletal open bite are the most significant contributing factors for open bite closure.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-05-25

      Effectiveness of miniscrew assisted rapid palatal expansion using cone beam computed tomography: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Patchaya Siddhisaributr , Kornkanok Khlongwanitchakul, Niwat Anuwongnukroh, Somchai Manopatanakul, Nita Viwattanatipa

      Abstract : Objective: This study aims to examine the effectiveness of miniscrew assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE) treatment in late adolescents and adult patients using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: Literature search was conducted in five electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library) based on the PICOS keyword design focusing on MARPE. Out of the 18 CBCT screened outcomes, only nine parameters were sufficient for the quantitative meta-analysis. The parameters were classified into three main groups: 1) skeletal changes, 2) alveolar change, and 3) dental changes. Heterogeneity test, estimation of pooled means, publication bias, sensitivity analysis and risk of bias assessment were also performed. Results: Upon database searching, only 14 full-text articles were qualified from the 364 obtained results. Heterogeneity test indicated the use of the random-effects model. The pooled mean estimate were as follows: 1) Skeletal expansion: zygomatic width, 2.39 mm; nasal width, 2.68 mm; jugular width, 3.12 mm; and midpalatal suture at the posterior nasal spine and anterior nasal spine, 3.34 mm and 4.56 mm, respectively; 2) Alveolar molar width expansion, 4.80 mm; and 3) Dental expansion: inter-canine width, 3.96 mm; inter-premolar width, 4.99 mm and inter-molar width, 5.99 mm. The percentage of expansion demonstrated a skeletal expansion (PNS) of 55.76%, alveolar molar width expansion of 24.37% and dental expansion of 19.87%. Conclusions: In the coronal view, the skeletal and dental expansion created by MARPE was of the pyramidal pattern. MARPE could successfully expand the constricted maxilla in late adolescents and adult patients.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-09-25

      Effect and stability of miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expansion: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Xinyi Huang , Yu Han, Shuangyan Yang

      Abstract : Objective: This study aimed to systematically analyze the effect and stability of miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE) to provide a reference for the clinical treatment of patients with maxillary transverse deficiency (MTD). Methods: We searched PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, and Wanfang Database for relevant studies published before February 18, 2021 and selected them according to the eligibility criteria. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews (version 5.1.0) criteria were used for the quality assessment of randomized controlled trials, while the scoring protocol of the methodological index for non-randomized studies was used for non-randomized controlled trials. Statistical analysis was performed using the RevMan5.3 software. Results: All the included studies showed a relatively high success rate of expansion. The changes in both the intermolar and alveolar widths after MARPE were statistically significant. MARPE exhibited greater skeletal expansion effects than did conventional RPE. The midpalatal suture was opened in parallel after MARPE. A small amount of relapse was observed 1 year after expansion. MARPE caused tooth inclination and a decrease in alveolar height, but it was less significant than in conventional RPE. Conclusions: MARPE may be an effective treatment modality for patients with MTD. It causes great transverse skeletal expansion in late adolescence. In comparison to conventional RPE, MARPE has lower detrimental periodontal effects and has certain clinical advantages.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-05-25

      Occlusal deviations in adolescents with idiopathic and congenital scoliosis

      Hao Zhang , Jingbo Ma , Zhicheng Zhang , Yafei Feng, Chuan Cai, Chao Wang

      Abstract : Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the characteristics of malocclusions in scoliotic patients through clinical examinations. Methods: Fifty-eight patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and 48 patients with congenital scoliosis (CS) participated in the study. A randomly selected group of 152 orthopedically healthy children served as the control group. Standardized orthodontic and orthopedic examination protocols were used to record the occlusal patterns and type of scoliosis. Assessments were made by three experienced orthodontists and a spinal surgery team. The differences in the frequency distribution of occlusal patterns were evaluated by the chi-squared test. Results: In comparison with patients showing IS, patients with CS showed a higher incidence of Cobb angle ≥ 45° (p = 0.020) and included a higher proportion of patients receiving surgical treatments (p < 0.001). The distribution of the Angle Class II subgroup was significantly higher in the IS (p < 0.001) and CS (p = 0.031) groups than in the control group. In comparison with the healthy controls, the CS and IS groups showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) frequencies of asymmetric molar and asymmetric canine relationships, upper and lower middle line deviations, anterior deep overbite, unilateral posterior crossbite, and canted occlusal plane, with the frequencies being especially higher in CS patients and to a lesser extent in IS patients. Conclusions: Patients with scoliosis showed a high frequency of malocclusions, which were most obvious in patients with CS.

    • Original Article l 2022-09-25

      Clinical effectiveness of different types of bone-anchored maxillary protraction devices for skeletal Class III malocclusion: Systematic review and network meta-analysis

      Jiangwei Wang , Yingying Yang, Yingxue Wang, Lu Zhang, Wei Ji, Zheng Hong, Linkun Zhang

      Abstract : Objective: This study aimed to estimate the clinical effects of different types of bone-anchored maxillary protraction devices by using a network meta-analysis. Methods: We searched seven databases for randomized and controlled clinical trials that compared bone-anchored maxillary protraction with tooth-anchored maxillary protraction interventions or untreated groups up to May 2021. After literature selection, data extraction, and quality assessment, we calculated the mean differences, 95% confidence intervals, and surface under the cumulative ranking scores of eleven indicators. Statistical analysis was performed using R statistical software with the GeMTC package based on the Bayesian framework. Results: Six interventions and 667 patients were involved in 18 studies. In comparison with the tooth-anchored groups, the bone-anchored groups showed significantly more increases in Sella-Nasion-Subspinale (°), Subspinale-Nasion-Supramentale(°) and significantly fewer increases in mandibular plane angle and the labial proclination angle of upper incisors. In comparison with the control group, Sella-Nasion-Supramentale(°) decreased without any statistical significance in all treated groups. IMPA (angle of lower incisors and mandibular plane) decreased in groups with facemasks and increased in other groups. Conclusions: Bone-anchored maxillary protraction can promote greater maxillary forward movement and correct the Class III intermaxillary relationship better, in addition to showing less clockwise rotation of mandible and labial proclination of upper incisors. However, strengthening anchorage could not inhibit mandibular growth better and the lingual inclination of lower incisors caused by the treatment is related to the use of a facemask.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-05-25

      Which anchorage device is the best during retraction of anterior teeth? An overview of systematic reviews

      Yassir A. Yassir , Sarah A. Nabbat, Grant T. McIntyre, David R. Bearn

      Abstract : Objective: To evaluate the available evidence regarding the clinical effectiveness of different types of anchorage devices. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of different electronic databases was conducted for systematic reviews investigating different anchorage methods published up to April 15, 2021. Any ongoing systematic reviews were searched using PROSPERO, and a grey literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar and OpenGrey. No language restriction was applied. Screening, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed independently by two authors. Information was categorized and narratively synthesized for the key findings from moderate- and high-quality reviews. Results: Fourteen systematic reviews were included (11 were of moderate/high quality). Skeletal anchorage with miniscrews was associated with less anchorage loss (and sometimes with anchorage gain). Similarly, skeletal anchorage was more effective in retracting anterior teeth and intruding incisors and molars, resulting in minor vertical skeletal changes and improvements in the soft tissue profile. However, insufficient evidence was obtained for the preference of any anchorage method in terms of the duration of treatment, number of appointments, quality of treatment, patient perception, or adverse effects. The effectiveness of skeletal anchorage can be enhanced when: directly loaded, used in the mandible rather than the maxilla, used buccally rather than palatally, using dual rather than single miniscrews, used for en-masse retraction, and in adults. Conclusions: The level of evidence regarding anchorage effectiveness is moderate. Nevertheless, compared to conventional anchorage, skeletal anchorage can be used with more anchorage preservation. Further high-quality randomized clinical trials are required to confirm these findings.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2022-07-25

      Accuracy of artificial intelligence-assisted landmark identification in serial lateral cephalograms of Class III patients who underwent orthodontic treatment and two-jaw orthognathic surgery

      Mihee Hong , Inhwan Kim , Jin-Hyoung Cho, Kyung-Hwa Kang, Minji Kim, Su-Jung Kim, Yoon-Ji Kim, Sang-Jin Sung, Young Ho Kim, Sung-Hoon Lim, Namkug Kim , Seung-Hak Baek

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate the pattern of accuracy change in artificial intelligence-assisted landmark identification (LI) using a convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm in serial lateral cephalograms (Lat-cephs) of Class III (C-III) patients who underwent two-jaw orthognathic surgery. Methods: A total of 3,188 Lat-cephs of C-III patients were allocated into the training and validation sets (3,004 Lat-cephs of 751 patients) and test set (184 Lat-cephs of 46 patients; subdivided into the genioplasty and non-genioplasty groups, n = 23 per group) for LI. Each C-III patient in the test set had four Lat-cephs: initial (T0), pre-surgery (T1, presence of orthodontic brackets [OBs]), post-surgery (T2, presence of OBs and surgical plates and screws [S-PS]), and debonding (T3, presence of S-PS and fixed retainers [FR]). After mean errors of 20 landmarks between human gold standard and the CNN model were calculated, statistical analysis was performed. Results: The total mean error was 1.17 mm without significant difference among the four time-points (T0, 1.20 mm; T1, 1.14 mm; T2, 1.18 mm; T3, 1.15 mm). In comparison of two time-points ([T0, T1] vs. [T2, T3]), ANS, A point, and B point showed an increase in error (p < 0.01, 0.05, 0.01, respectively), while Mx6D and Md6D showeda decrease in error (all p < 0.01). No difference in errors existed at B point, Pogonion, Menton, Md1C, and Md1R between the genioplasty and non-genioplasty groups. Conclusions: The CNN model can be used for LI in serial Lat-cephs despite the presence of OB, S-PS, FR, genioplasty, and bone remodeling.

    • Case Report l 2022-09-25

      Camouflage treatment by backward rotation of the mandible for a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion with aplastic anemia: A case report

      Dong-Soon Choi , Dong-Hyun Lee, Insan Jang, Bong-Kuen Cha

      Abstract : Orthognathic surgery is the primary treatment option for severe skeletal discrepancy. However, orthodontic camouflage should be considered as an alternative treatment option, considering the risks of surgery. A 19.5-year-old man presented with a severe prognathic mandible with a Class III molar relationship and an anterior crossbite. Orthognathic surgery could be considered because of his severe skeletal discrepancy and mandibular prognathism. However, the anesthetist for orthognathic surgery did not recommend surgery under general anesthesia because of risk factors associated with the patient’s aplastic anemia, including bleeding and infections. Thus, a camouflage treatment to promote backward rotation of the mandible via orthodontic extrusion of the posterior teeth was planned. An anterior bite plate, intermaxillary elastics, and fixed orthodontic appliances were used to extrude the posterior teeth and to align the dentition. After 17 months of nonsurgical orthodontic treatment, normal occlusion was achieved, and the facial profile was dramatically improved. This case report describes the dentoskeletal and soft-tissue effects of mandibular rotation and its long-term stability.

    • Case Report l 2022-05-25

      Maxillary space closure using a digital manufactured Mesialslider in a single appointment workflow

      Lynn Wilhelmy , Jan H. Willmann, Nour Eldin Tarraf, Benedict Wilmes, Dieter Drescher

      Abstract : New digital technologies, many involving three-dimensional printing, bring benefits for clinical applications. This article reports on the clinical procedure and fabrication of a skeletally anchored mesialization appliance (Mesialslider) using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for space closure of a congenitally missing lateral incisor in a 12-year-old female patient. The insertion of the mini-implants and appliance was performed in a single appointment. Bodily movement of the molars was achieved using the Mesialslider. Anchorage loss, such as deviation of the anterior midline or palatal tilting of the anterior teeth, was completely avoided. CAD/CAM facilitates safe and precise insertion of mini-implants. Further, mini-implants can improve patient comfort by reducing the number of office visits and eliminating the need for orthodontic bands and physical impressions.

      Abstract  

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March, 2024
Vol.54 No.2

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Clinical Journal of Korean Association of Orthodontists