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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

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< PreviousNext >Korean J Orthod 2023; 53(6): 343~430
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    • Review Article l 2023-11-25

      Managing oral biofilms to avoid enamel demineralization during fixed orthodontic treatment

      Jung-Sub An , Bum-Soon Lim, Sug-Joon Ahn

      Abstract : Enamel demineralization represents the most prevalent complication arising from fixed orthodontic treatment. Its main etiology is the development of cariogenic biofilms formed around orthodontic appliances. Ordinarily, oral biofilms exist in a dynamic equilibrium with the host's defense mechanisms. However, the equilibrium can be disrupted by environmental changes, such as the introduction of a fixed orthodontic appliance, resulting in a shift in the biofilm’s microbial composition from non-pathogenic to pathogenic. This alteration leads to an increased prevalence of cariogenic bacteria, notably mutans streptococci, within the biofilm. This article examines the relationships between oral biofilms and orthodontic appliances, with a particular focus on strategies for effectively managing oral biofilms to mitigate enamel demineralization around orthodontic appliances.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2023-11-25

      Three-dimensional evaluation of the pharyngeal airway space in patients with anterior open bite

      Seong-Sik Kim , Yong-Il Kim, Soo-Byung Park, Sung-Hun Kim

      Abstract : Objective: This study aimed to three-dimensionally evaluate the pharyngeal airway space (PAS) of patients with anterior open bite (AOB) by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compare the findings with those obtained in individuals with normal occlusion. Methods: The open bite group (OBG, n = 25) consisted of patients with an anterior overbite of –3 mm or less, while the control group (n = 25) consisted of age- and sex-matched individuals with an anterior overbite of 1–3 mm, Angle Class I malocclusion (1° ≤ point A-nasion-point B angle ≤ 4°), and a normodivergent profile (22° ≤ Frankfort mandibular plane angle ≤ 28°). After the CBCT data were reconstructed into a three-dimensional image, the PAS was segmented into four parts, and the volume of each part was measured. Pharyngeal airway length (PAL) and the area and transverse width of the part showing minimal constriction were also measured. Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between changes in the PAS and the amount of anterior overbite. Results: The OBG showed a significantly narrower airway space in the nasopharyngeal, hypopharyngeal, and total airway volumes. The OBG also showed a significantly smaller area and transverse width of the part with minimal constriction. The OBG showed a significantly longer PAL, but there was no correlation between the amount of anterior overbite and the changes in PAS. Conclusions: The PAS was associated with AOB. Patients with AOB had a narrower PAS and a smaller part showing minimal constriction.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2023-11-25

      Risk factors for orthodontic fixed retention failure: A retrospective controlled study

      Kaat Verschueren , Amit Arvind Rajbhoj, Giacomo Begnoni, Guy Willems, Anna Verdonck, Maria Cadenas de Llano-Pérula

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate the potential correlation between fixed orthodontic retention failure and several patient- and treatment-related factors. Methods: Patients finishing treatment with fixed appliances between 2016 and 2017 were retrospectively included in this study. Those not showing fixed retention failure were considered as control group. Patients with fixed retention failure were considered as the experimental group. Additionally, patients with failure of fixed retainers in the period of June 2019 to March 2021 were prospectively identified and included in the experimental group. The location of the first retention failure, sex, pretreatment dental occlusion, facial characteristics, posttreatment dental occlusion, treatment approach and presence of oral habits were compared between groups before and after treatment separately by using a Fisher exact test and a Mann–Whitney U test. Results: 206 patients with fixed retention failure were included, 169 in the mandibular and 74 in the maxillary jaws. Significant correlations were observed between retention failure in the mandibular jaws and mandibular arch length discrepancy (P = 0.010), post-treatment growth pattern (P = 0.041), nail biting (P < 0.001) and abnormal tongue function (P = 0.002). Retention failure in the maxillary jaws was more frequent in patients with IPR in the mandibular jaws (P = 0.005) and abnormal tongue function (P = 0.021). Conclusions: This study suggests a correlation between fixed retention failure and parafunctional habits, such as nail biting and abnormal tongue function. Prospective studies with larger study populations could further confirm these results.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2023-11-25

      Periodontal health status, oral microbiome, white-spot lesions and oral health related to quality of life-clear aligners versus fixed appliances: A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression

      Ana Sandra Llera-Romero , Milagros Adobes-Martín, José Enrique Iranzo-Cortés , José Maria Montiel-Company, Daniele Garcovich

      Abstract : Objective: Assess and evaluate the different indicators of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among patients treated with clear aligners (CAs) versus those treated with conventional fixed orthodontics (FAs). Methods: An electronic search was performed on the database is Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase databases. Randomized and non-randomized control trials, cross-sectional, prospective cohort and retrospective trials were included. Quality was assessed with risk of bias tool and risk of bias in non-randomised studies. Meta-analyses were performed with random effects models, estimating the standardized and non-standardized mean differences, odds ratio and risk ratio as the measure of effect. The effect on time was determined using a meta-regression model. Results: Thirty one articles were included in the qualitative synthesis and 17 in the meta-analysis. CAs had a significantly lower negative impact on QoL, with an “important” effect size, while the influence of time was not significant. Periodontal indicators plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and bleeding on probing show significantly better values in patients treated with CAs, with moderate to large effect sizes. PI and GI have a significant tendency to improve over time. In microbiological indicators, CAs present a lower biofilm mass without differences in the percentage of patients with high counts of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli bacteria. The risk of white spot lesion onset is ten times lower in carriers of CAs. Conclusions: Patients wearing CAs show better periodontal indicators, less risk of white spot development, less biofilm mass and a better QoL than patients with FAs.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2023-11-25

      Effects of 4-hexylresorcinol on facial skeletal development in growing rats: Considerations for diabetes

      Hannah Jeong , Jwa-Young Kim, Xiangguo Che, Je-Yong Choi, Insan Jang , Seong-Gon Kim

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate the long-term effects of 4-hexylresorcinol (4HR) on facial skeletal growth in growing male rats, with a focus on diabetic animal models. Methods: Forty male rats were used. Of them, type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 animals by administering 40 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ), and they were assigned to either the STZ or 4HR-injected group (STZ/4HR group). The remaining 20 healthy rats were divided into control and 4HR groups. We administered 4HR subcutaneously at a weekly dose of 10 mg/kg until the rats were euthanized. At 16 weeks of age, whole blood was collected, and micro-computed tomography of the skull and femur was performed. Results: All craniofacial linear measurements were smaller in the STZ group than in the control group. The mandibular molar width was significantly smaller in the 4HR group than in the control group (P = 0.031) but larger in the STZ/4HR group than in the STZ group (P = 0.011). Among the diabetic animals, the STZ/4HR group exhibited significantly greater cortical bone thickness, bone mineral density, and bone volume than the STZ group. Serum testosterone levels were also significantly higher in the STZ/4HR group than in the STZ group. Conclusions: 4HR administration may have divergent effects on mandibular growth and bone mass in healthy and diabetic rats. In the context of diabetes, 4HR appears to have beneficial effects, potentially through the modulation of mitochondrial respiration.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2023-11-25

      Differences in facial soft tissue deviations in Class III patients with different types of mandibular asymmetry: A cone-beam computed tomography study

      Ho-Jin Kim , Hyung-Kyu Noh, Hyo-Sang Park

      Abstract : Objective: This study assessed the differences in soft tissue deviations of the nose, lips, and chin between different mandibular asymmetry types in Class III patients. Methods: Cone-beam computed tomography data from 90 Class III patients with moderate-to-severe facial asymmetry were investigated. The sample was divided into three groups based on the extent of mandibular rolling, yawing, and translation. Soft tissue landmarks on the nose, lips, and chin were investigated vertically, transversely, and anteroposteriorly. A paired t test was performed to compare variables between the deviated (Dv) and nondeviated (NDv) sides, and one-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s post-hoc test was performed for intergroup comparisons. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the relationship between the soft and hard tissue deviations. Results: The roll-dominant group showed significantly greater differences in the vertical positions of the soft tissue landmarks between the Dv and NDv than other groups (P < 0.05), whereas the yaw-dominant group exhibited larger differences in the transverse and anteroposterior directions (P < 0.05). Moreover, transverse lip cant was correlated with the menton (Me) deviation and mandibular rolling in the roll-dominant group (P < 0.001); the angulation of the nasal bridge or philtrum was correlated with the Me deviation and mandibular yawing in the yaw-dominant group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The three-dimensional deviations of facial soft tissue differed based on the mandibular asymmetry types in Class III patients with similar amounts of Me deviation. A precise understanding of soft tissue deviation in each asymmetry type would help achieve satisfactory facial esthetics.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2023-11-25

      Biomechanical analysis for different mandibular total distalization methods with clear aligners: A finite element study

      Sewoong Oh , Youn-Kyung Choi, Sung-Hun Kim, Ching-Chang Ko, Ki Beom Kim, Yong-Il Kim

      Abstract : Objective: The purpose of this finite element method (FEM) study was to analyze the biomechanical differences and tooth displacement patterns according to the traction direction, methods, and sites for total distalization of the mandibular dentition using clear aligner treatment (CAT). Methods: A finite element analysis was performed on four FEM models using different traction methods (via a precision cut hook or button) and traction sites (mandibular canine or first premolar). A distalization force of 1.5 N was applied to the traction site by changing the direction from –30 to +30° to the occlusal plane. The initial tooth displacement and von Mises stress on the clear aligners were analyzed. Results: All CAT-based total distalization groups showed an overall trend of clockwise or counterclockwise rotation of the occlusal plane as the force direction varied. Mesiodistal tipping of individual teeth was more prominent than that of bodily movements. The initial displacement pattern of the mandibular teeth was more predominant based on the traction site than on the traction method. The elastic deformation of clear aligners is attributed to unintentional lingual tipping or extrusion of the mandibular anterior teeth. Conclusions: The initial tooth displacement can vary according to different distalization strategies for CAT-based total distalization. Discreet application and biomechanical understanding of traction sites and directions are necessary for appropriate mandibular total distalization.

      Abstract  
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