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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

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< PreviousNext >Korean J Orthod 2024; 54(1): 1~73
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    • Reader’s Forum l 2024-01-25

      READER’S FORUM

      Changbeom Kwon
    • Review Article l 2024-01-25

      Orthodontic tooth movement after periodontal regeneration of intrabony defects

      Conchita Martin , Mariano Sanz

      Abstract : The prevalence of intrabony defects in patients with advanced periodontitis stages III and IV is high. These patients usually need both periodontal treatment and orthodontic therapy, including tooth movement through bone defects, to improve masticatory function, aesthetics, and overall quality of life. Clinical practice guidelines recommend periodontal regenerative surgical interventions to resolve these defects and propose initiating orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) once periodontal therapy goals have been met. Surgical interventions using various regenerative technologies like barrier membranes and enamel matrix proteins, combined or not with bone replacement grafts, have proven effective in regenerating lost periodontal tissues. However, the combination of periodontal and orthodontic treatments requires consideration of how periodontal regenerative therapies influence OTM. Studies suggest that regenerated bone may differ in density, composition, vascularity, and cellular activity, potentially affecting the speed and efficiency of OTM, and potential root resorption of moved teeth. Understanding the sequence and timing of implementing OTM after regenerative periodontal interventions is crucial due to their interlinked processes of bone resorption and formation. This narrative review aims to uncover scientific evidence regarding these combined treatments, examining the impacts of different regenerative technologies on OTM and delineating their advantages, limitations, and best practices.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2024-01-25

      Effectiveness of laser-engineered copper-nickel titanium versus superelastic nickel-titanium aligning archwires: A randomized clinical trial

      Omar Khairullah Ahmed , Ammar Salim Kadhum

      Abstract : Objective: To compare the effectiveness of laser-engineered copper-nickel titanium (SmartArch) and superelastic nickel-titanium (SENT) archwires in aligning teeth and inducing root resorption and pain experienced by patients. Methods: Two-arm parallel groups with a 1:1 allocation ratio were used. The participants were patients aged 11.5 years and older with 5–9 mm of mandibular anterior crowding who were indicated for non-extraction treatment. The primary outcome was alignment effectiveness, assessed using Little’s irregularity index (LII) over 16 weeks with a single wire (0.016-inch) in the SmartArch group and 2 wires (0.014- and 0.018-inch) in the SENT group (8 weeks each). Secondary outcomes included root resorption evaluated by pre- and post-intervention periapical radiographs and pain levels recorded by the participants during the first week. Results: A total of 40 participants were randomly allocated into 2 groups; 33 completed the study and were analyzed (16 in the SmartArch group and 17 in the SENT group, aged 16.97 ± 4.05 years). The total LII decrease for the SmartArch and SENT groups was 5.63 mm and 5.29 mm, respectively, which was neither statistically nor clinically significant. Root resorption was not significantly different between the groups. The difference in pain levels was not statistically significant for the first 5 days following wire placement; however, there was a significant difference favoring the SENT group in the final 2 days. Conclusions: SmartArch and SENT archwires were similarly effective during the alignment phase of orthodontic treatment. Root resorption should be observed throughout the treatment with either wire. SmartArch wires demonstrated higher pain perception than SENT wires.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2024-01-25

      Role of vitamin D for orthodontic tooth movement, external apical root resorption, and bone biomarker expression and remodeling: A systematic review

      Martina Ferrillo , Dario Calafiore , Lorenzo Lippi , Francesco Agostini , Mario Migliario , Marco Invernizzi , Amerigo Giudice , Alessandro de Sire

      Abstract : Objective: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the correlation between vitamin D levels and the rate of tooth movement, external apical root resorption, bone biomarker expression, and bone remodeling. Methods: Three databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) were systematically searched from inception until 14th March 2023 to identify studies investigating the correlation between orthodontic tooth movement and vitamin D in animals and humans. The quality assessment was made in accordance with the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist. Results: Overall, 519 records were identified, and 19 were selected for the qualitative synthesis. Eleven studies investigated the effect of local administration (injections in the periodontal ligament, to the gingiva distal to the teeth, or submucosae palatal area) and systemic administration (oral supplementation) of vitamin D on tooth movement, external apical root movement, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and bone remodeling factors. The remaining eight studies investigated the correlation between serum vitamin D levels and salivary vitamin D levels on bone turnover markers and tooth movement. Conclusions: The findings of this systematic review support that vitamin D3 local injections might increase the rate of tooth movement via the receptor activator of the nuclear factor-kB/osteoprotegerin axis. However, the non-uniform study designs and the different protocols and outcome methods make it challenging to draw reliable conclusions.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2024-01-25

      Accuracy of posteroanterior cephalogram landmarks and measurements identification using a cascaded convolutional neural network algorithm: A multicenter study

      Sung-Hoon Han , Jisup Lim , Jun-Sik Kim , Jin-Hyoung Cho , Mihee Hong , Minji Kim , Su-Jung Kim , Yoon-Ji Kim , Young Ho Kim , Sung-Hoon Lim , Sang Jin Sung , Kyung-Hwa Kang , Seung-Hak Baek , Sung-Kwon Choi , Namkug Kim

      Abstract : Objective: To quantify the effects of midline-related landmark identification on midline deviation measurements in posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms using a cascaded convolutional neural network (CNN). Methods: A total of 2,903 PA cephalogram images obtained from 9 university hospitals were divided into training, internal validation, and test sets (n = 2,150, 376, and 377). As the gold standard, 2 orthodontic professors marked the bilateral landmarks, including the frontozygomatic suture point and latero-orbitale (LO), and the midline landmarks, including the crista galli, anterior nasal spine (ANS), upper dental midpoint (UDM), lower dental midpoint (LDM), and menton (Me). For the test, Examiner-1 and Examiner-2 (3-year and 1-year orthodontic residents) and the Cascaded-CNN models marked the landmarks. After point-to-point errors of landmark identification, the successful detection rate (SDR) and distance and direction of the midline landmark deviation from the midsagittal line (ANS-mid, UDM-mid, LDM-mid, and Me-mid) were measured, and statistical analysis was performed. Results: The cascaded-CNN algorithm showed a clinically acceptable level of point-to-point error (1.26 mm vs. 1.57 mm in Examiner-1 and 1.75 mm in Examiner-2). The average SDR within the 2 mm range was 83.2%, with high accuracy at the LO (right, 96.9%; left, 97.1%), and UDM (96.9%). The absolute measurement errors were less than 1 mm for ANS-mid, UDM-mid, and LDM-mid compared with the gold standard. Conclusions: The cascaded-CNN model may be considered an effective tool for the auto-identification of midline landmarks and quantification of midline deviation in PA cephalograms of adult patients, regardless of variations in the image acquisition method.

      Abstract  
    • Original Article l 2024-01-25

      Long-term effects of maxillary skeletal expander treatment on functional breathing

      Andrew Combs , Ney Paredes , Ramon Dominguez-Mompell , Martin Romero-Maroto , Boshi Zhang , Islam Elkenawy , Luca Sfogliano , Layla Fijany , Ozge Colak , Ben Wu , Won Moon

      Abstract : Objective: To investigate the long-term effects of maxillary skeletal expander (MSE) treatment on functional breathing. Methods: Objective measures of breathing, the peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF), and peak oral inspiratory flow (POIF), and subjective measures of breathing, the visual analog scale (VAS) and nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) survey, were used to investigate the long-term effects of MSE in functional breathing. Seventeen patients, mean age 19.4 ± 3.9 years treated at the UCLA Orthodontics Clinic were assessed on their functional breathing at 3 timepoints: pre-expansion (T0), post-expansion (T1), and post-orthodontic treatment (T2). Results: Immediately after expansion (T1), all the objective functional breathing values were significantly increased in comparison to T0 (P < 0.05). The VAS total, VAS right and VAS left were significantly lower at T1 in comparison to T0 (P < 0.05). At 26.8 ± 3.9 months after MSE expansion (T2), PNIF total, PNIF right, PNIF left, and POIF were significantly higher when compared to T0 (P < 0.05). Also, VAS total, VAS right and VAS left were significantly lower at T2 when compared to T0 (P < 0.05). Additionally, there was a positive correlation between PNIF and the magnitude of expansion at anterior nasal spine and zygomaticomaxillary point (ZMA). There was a positive correlation between total VAS and the magnitude of expansion at the ZMA. There were no significant changes for the NOSE subjective breathing measurement at all time comparisons. Conclusions: Overall, MSE treatment produces an increased objective and subjective airway improvement that continues to remain stable in the long-term post expansion.

      Abstract  
    • Brief Report l 2024-01-25

      Biocreative Alveolar Molding Plate Treatment (BioAMP) for neonatal unilateral cleft lip and palate with excessively wide alveolar cleft and maxillary arch width

      HyeRan Choo , HyoWon Ahn

      Abstract : Since its inception in Europe in the 1950s, alveolar molding treatment for neonates with complete cleft lip and palate has undergone significant evolution in both design and application methodology, demonstrating effectiveness in normalizing the alveolar cleft and nasal shape. However, excessively wide alveolar clefts accompanied by disproportionately wide total maxillary arch pose significant challenges when utilizing conventional alveolar molding methods involving cyclical adding and grinding of acrylic on molding plates. The current report introduces a novel alveolar molding method named Biocreative Alveolar Molding Plate Treatment (BioAMP), which can normalize the maxillary alveolar cleft and arch shape without laborious conventional acrylic procedures. BioAMP sets the target arch form and provides unrestricted space for natural growth of the maxillary alveolar bones while systematically reducing the total maxillary arch width in precise increments. Two exemplary cases are presented as proof-of-concept, showcasing the clinical innovation of BioAMP.

      Abstract  
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Clinical Journal of Korean Association of Orthodontists