pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

Table. 1.

Comparison of baseline craniofacial characteristics (T1) between children treated with Class II functional appliances and untreated children

Variable Z-activator (15 girls, 19 boys) E-activator (16 girls, 12 boys) Control (8 girls, 9 boys) p-value

Z vs. C E vs. C
CVM methods NS NS
CS1 5 (14.7) 7 (25.0) 1 (5.9)
CS2 13 (38.2) 11 (39.3) 7 (41.2)
CS3 10 (29.4) 7 (25.0) 9 (52.9)
CS4 6 (17.6) 3 (10.7) 0 (0)
Treatment timing NS NS
Early (pre-peak) 17 (50.0) 17 (60.7) 8 (47.1)
Late (on-peak) 17 (50.0) 11 (39.3) 9 (52.9)
Upper spine morphology
Fusion 3 (8.8) 7 (25.0) 2 (11.8) NS NS
PAD 8 (23.5) 8 (28.6) 3 (17.6) NS NS
Age (yr) 11.82 ± 1.48 11.17 ± 1.20 11.76 ± 1.50 NS NS
Atlas dimension (mm)
Dorsal arch height 8.49 ± 1.59 7.70 ± 2.03 8.09 ± 1.59 NS NS
PNAH 4.02 ± 0.68 3.90 ± 0.92 4.19 ± 0.93 NS NS
A-P dimension 45.11 ± 2.91 44.19 ± 3.28 43.47 ± 3.26 NS NS
Cranial base angle (°)
n-s-ba 134.24 ± 4.96 131.74 ± 5.25 130.57 ± 4.20 < 0.05* NS
Sagittal dimensions (°)
ss-n-pg 6.07 ± 1.67 5.14 ± 1.78 4.14 ± 1.94 < 0.01** NS
s-n-ss 80.33 ± 2.89 80.81 ± 3.17 80.95 ± 3.01 NS NS
s-n-pg 74.27 ± 2.66 75.69 ± 3.79 76.82 ± 3.42 < 0.05* NS
Vertical dimensions (°)
NL/ML 27.88 ± 4.04 24.37 ± 5.09 27.57 ± 7.73 NS < 0.05*
NSL/NL 8.73 ± 3.17 8.48 ± 3.78 6.74 ± 2.11 NS NS
NSL/ML 36.61 ± 4.25 32.85 ± 6.77 34.31 ± 8.07 NS NS
Mandibular form (°)
ML/Rlar 121.34 ± 5.54 120.33 ± 8.15 124.47 ± 6.99 NS < 0.05*
ML/MBLar 19.26 ± 2.83 19.95 ± 2.96 19.17 ± 3.21 NS NS
Dental
Overjet (mm) 8.64 ± 2.11 8.45 ± 2.29 7.25 ± 2.29 < 0.001*** < 0.01**
Overbite (mm) 2.91 ± 1.88 4.04 ± 1.68 1.41 ± 3.35 NS < 0.01
ILs to NL (°) 117.26 ± 6.03 117.41 ± 6.80 113.49 ± 5.77 NS NS
ILi to ML (°) 94.78 ± 6.42 98.69 ± 6.67 94.78 ± 5.89 NS NS
Lower anterior facial height (sp-gn, mm) 65.52 ± 3.57 60.02 ± 4.67 62.28 ± 7.69 NS < 0.05*

Values are presented as number (%) or mean ± standard deviation.

Chi-square test for evaluation of CVM and upper spine morphology.

Multiple linear regression analysis for craniofacial morphology, adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity.

Z vs. C, Significant difference between Z-activator and control; E vs. C, significant difference between E-activator and control; T1, before treatment; CVM, cervical vertebral maturation; CS1, cervical stage 1; CS2, cervical stage 2; CS3, cervical stage 3; CS4, cervical stage 4; PAD, posterior arch deficiency; PNAH, posterior neural arch height; A-P, anteroposterior; NS, not significant.

*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.

See Figures 2 and 3 for definitions of the other landmarks.

Korean J Orthod 2020;50:170~180 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2020.50.3.170
© Korean J Orthod
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