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Table. 2.

Comparison of true craniofacial changes and jaw rotations after Class II functional appliance treatment (T1–T2) with those in the absence of treatment (control group) (superimposition on stable structures)

Variable Z-activator (n = 34) E-activator (n = 28) Control (n = 17) p-value

Z vs. C E vs. C
Treatment duration (yr) 1.55 ± 0.67 1.79 ± 1.18 1.46 ± 0.51 NS NS
Age at T2 (yr) 13.36 ± 1.39 12.89 ± 1.45 13.24 ± 1.69 NS NS
Cranial base changes (°)
n-s-ba −1.05 ± 1.84 −0.60 ± 2.46 0.38 ± 1.61 < 0.001*** < 0.05*
Sagittal changes (°)
ss-n-pg −2.27 ± 1.28 −1.78 ± 1.30 −0.68 ± 0.91 < 0.001*** < 0.001***
s-n-ss −1.25 ± 1.52 −0.67 ± 1.54 0.17 ± 0.81 < 0.001*** < 0.05*
s-n-pg 1.02 ± 1.31 1.10 ± 1.56 0.84 ± 0.87 NS NS
Vertical changes (°)
NL/ML −1.59 ± 1.72 −1.10 ± 1.78 −0.94 ± 2.47 NS NS
NSL/NL 0.82 ± 1.36 1.43 ± 1.97 0.94 ± 1.85 NS NS
NSL/ML −0.79 ± 1.65 0.34 ± 2.11 −0.84 ± 1.56 NS NS
Jaw rotations (°)
NSL/MaxillaRef 0.09 ± 0.75 0.44 ± 1.53 −0.43 ± 1.01 NS < 0.01**
NSL/MandibleRef −1.30 ± 1.94 −1.02 ± 2.42 −1.67 ± 2.20 NS NS
Condylar growth (mm)
cd-cdRef 6.52 ± 2.71 8.62 ± 3.47 4.41 ± 2.12 < 0.001*** < 0.001***
ar-arRef 6.52 ± 2.71 7.44 ± 2.86 4.41 ± 2.20 < 0.01** < 0.001***
Mandibular form changes (°)
ML/Rlar 0.21 ± 2.20 0.84 ± 2.76 −0.63 ± 2.45 NS NS
ML/MBLar 0.39 ± 1.01 −0.12 ± 1.38 0.24 ± 1.42 NS NS
Upper teeth to MaxillaRef
isi horizontal (mm) −2.54 ± 2.20 −1.75 ± 1.83 0.96 ± 0.62 < 0.001*** < 0.001***
isi vertical (mm) 1.95 ± 1.89 2.69 ± 2.16 1.41 ± 0.88 NS < 0.05*
ILs inclination (°) −5.01 ± 5.07 −7.09 ± 5.48 1.89 ± 2.86 < 0.001*** < 0.001***
Lower teeth to MandibleRef
iii horizontal (mm) 0.53 ± 1.59 1.54 ± 1.91 0.29 ± 1.15 NS < 0.01**
iii vertical (mm) 1.66 ± 1.30 0.26 ± 1.60 0.87 ± 1.45 < 0.05* NS
ILi inclination (°) 0.61 ± 4.76 4.47 ± 6.96 0.21 ± 3.14 NS < 0.001***
Dental relationship (mm)
Overjet −4.96 ± 2.20 −5.36 ± 2.43 0.32 ± 1.01 < 0.001*** < 0.001***
Overbite −0.65 ± 1.60 −2.03 ± 2.02 −0.11 ± 1.67 NS < 0.01**
Lower anterior facial height (sp-gn, mm) 3.22 ± 1.84 4.05 ± 2.08 1.83 ± 1.65 < 0.05* < 0.001***

Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation.

Multiple linear regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, treatment timing, treatment duration, and ethnicity.

Z vs. C, Significant difference between Z-activator and control; E vs. C, significant difference between E-activator and control; T1, before treatment; T2, after functional appliance treatment; ar-arRef, articulare-articulare at T1; NS, not significant.

*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.

See Figures 25 definitions of the other landmarks.

Korean J Orthod 2020;50:170~180 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2020.50.3.170
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