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Fig. 2. Cephalometric landmarks and measurements. A, Landmarks. S, Sella; N, nasion; Ba, basion; Or, orbitale; Po, porion; Pt, pterygoid point; R, midpoint between sella and basion; AD1, adenoid point 1 (adenoid tissue on the PNS-Ba line); AD2, adenoid point 2 (adenoid tissue on the R-PNS line); Co, condylion; Go, gonion; ANS, anterior nasal spine; PNS, posterior nasal spine; A, point A; B, point B; TT, tongue tip; Pog, pogonion; Me, menton; P, tip of the soft palate; Eb, base of the epiglottic fold; H, hyoidale (the most anterosuperior point on the body of the hyoid bone); RGN, retrognathion; Pm, protuberance menti; Xi, geometric center of the ramus; FH, Frankfort horizontal; C3, the third vertebrae. B, Skeletodental variables. 1, SNA; 2, SNB; 3, SN-Pog; 4, ANB; 5, effective maxillary length (EMxL); 6, effective mandibular length (EMnL); 7, ANS-Me; 8, lower facial height (ANS-Xi-Pm); 9, overjet; 10, U1-SN; 11, U1-FH; 12, L1-MP. C, Airway-related variables. hyoid bone 1, H-RGN; 2, MP-H; 3, H-PTV; 4, H-C3Me; tongue 5, TGL; 6, TGH; 7, Td-PP; 8, TT-PTV; soft palate 9, SPL; 10, SPT; 11, SPA; pharyngeal airway 12, SPAS; 13, MAS; 14, IAS; 15, PNS-AD1; 16, PNS-AD2. See Table 2 for definitions of each landmark or measurement.
Korean J Orthod 2020;50:238~248 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2020.50.4.238
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