pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

Table. 1.

Definitions of soft tissue landmarks and reference planes

Soft tissue landmark Abbreviation Definition
Nasion na The point in the midline of both the nasal root and the frontonasal suture
Endocanthion en The soft tissue point located at the inner commissure of the each eye fissure
Exocanthion ex The soft tissue point located at the outer commissure of the each eye fissure
Pronasale prn The most prominent point on the nasal tip
Columella constructed point cc The midpoint of the columella crest at the level of the nostril top points
Alare al The most lateral point on each alar contour
Alare curvature ac The point located at the facial insertion of each alar base
Subnasale sn The midpoint on the nasolabial soft tissue contour between the columella crest and the upper lip
Labiale superior ls The midpoint of the vermilion line of the upper lip
Reference plane
Axial plane A plane constructed with the right endocanthion and the left endocanthion on the natural head position, parallel to the floor
Coronal plane A plane constructed with the right exocanthion and the left exocanthion, perpendicular to the axial plane
Sagittal plane A plane constructed with nasion, perpendicular to the axial and coronal planes
Korean J Orthod 2020;50:249~257 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2020.50.4.249
© Korean J Orthod