pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

Table. 1.

Anatomical landmarks used in the present study and their definitions

Landmark Definition
Anterior nasal spine (ANS) The most anterior point of the nasal spine
Cheilion (Ch) The most lateral point at the angle of the lips
Mid-cheilion (MidCh) The mid-point of both cheilions
Columella (Col) The most anterior point of soft tissue columella that links the nasal tip to the nasal base and separates the nares
Tragus (Tr) The lateral left point of the tube running from the outer ear to the middle ear
Mid-tragus (MidTr) The mid-point of both external auricular canal points
Genial tubercle (GT) The mid-point of prominence on each side of the mental protuberance of the mandible
Lens (L) The mid-point of left of lens on each side
Gonion (Go) The most outward point on the angle of the mandible formed by the junction of the ramus and the body of the mandible
Menton (Me) The most inferior point of the chin in the sagittal view
Mesiobuccal cusp of upper first molar(#16 MBC, #26 MBC) Mesiobuccal cusp of upper first molar
Mid-incisal region of maxilla (U1) The mid-point of upper central incisor tip
Mid-incisal region of mandible (L1) The mid-point of lower central incisor tip
Alar (Al) The lowest point of soft tissue ala in the coronal view
Mid-alar (MidAl) The mid-points of both lateral nasal soft tissue regions
Nasion (N) The most anterior point of the frontonasal suture on the midplane
Opisthion (Op) The median point of the posterior border of the foramen magnum
Optic nerve (ON) The mid-point where the optic nerve enters on each side
Orbitale (Or) The lowest point on the lower edge of the orbit
Porion (Po) The uppermost external point of the external auditory meatus
Mid-porion (MidPo) The mid-point of both porions
Sella (S) The landmark representing the left of sella turcica
Korean J Orthod 2020;50:258~267 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2020.50.4.258
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