pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

Table. 2.

Definitions of the craniofacial planes evaluated in the present study

Plane Definition Landmark
Horizontal planes related with cranium
Broadbent’s plane (SN plane) The plane passing from nasion to sella and perpendicular to midsagittal plane (as known as S-N plane) S, N, MS plane
Optical axis plane The plane constructed by 3 points; both lens and optic nerve L (both), ON
Horizontal planes related with midface
Camper’s plane The plane constructed by 3 points; both ala and mid-tragus MidTr, Al (both)
His’ plane The plane passing from anterior nasal spine to opisthion and perpendicular to midsagittal plane ANS, Op, MS plane
Frankfort horizontal plane (FH plane) The plane constructed by 3 points; both orbitale, mid-porion Or (both), MidPo
Occlusal plane The plane passing the mid-incisor tip of maxilla and mesiobuccal cusp of upper molars on both side U1, #16 & 26 MBC
Sagittal planes related with midface
Nasal axis plane A sagittal plane divides the nose into right and left halves, constructed by 3 points; nasion, columella, and mid-alar N, Col, MidAlar
Horizontal planes related with lower face
Mandibular symmetry plane A sagittal plane divides the mandible into right and left halves, constructed by 3 points; genial tubercle, menton, mid-incisor tip of mandible GT, Me, L1
Mandibular plane Drawn from the most inferior border of the ramus of the mandible to menton Go (both), Me
Lip canting plane The plane passing through both side of cheilions and mid-cheilion Ch (both), MidCh
Reference planes
Midsagittal plane (MS plane) A sagittal plane through the nasion and perpendicular to Frankfort horizontal plane N, FH plane
N-perpendicular plane A coronal plane passing the nasion and perpendicular to Frankfort horizontal plane and midsagittal plane N, FH plane, MS plane

See Table 1 for definitions of each landmarks.

Korean J Orthod 2020;50:258~267 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2020.50.4.258
© Korean J Orthod