pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

Table. 1.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria for patients

Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Class I malocclusion Class III malocclusion
Class II malocclusion (Dental, Division 1) Sagittal and transversal skeletal problem
Malocclusion requiring the extraction of the upper first premolars Aged < 16
Aged > 16 Cross bite
Good general health Abnormal chewing habit
No medication Previous orthodontic treatment
No radiographic or clinical evidence of bone loss Long term use of any drug
Good periodontal condition (probing depth 1–3 mm/
pocket depth less than 3 mm/no bleeding while probing)
Smoking
Healthy mental condition Periodontal hygiene problem
Orofacial deformity
Mental or behavior disorders
Korean J Orthod 2021;51:157~165 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2021.51.3.157
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