pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

Table. 4.

Characteristics of the selected studies

Study Study
Sex Insertion
Type of
Surgical insertion procedure
et al.13
Case report 1 16 F Buccal alveolar bone between roots of maxillary central and lateral incisors on both sides Alveolar bone exostoses 2 months 1.2 mm diameter and 8 mm length -
Case report 1 - - Lingual alveolar bone between the roots of 46–47 -
et al.24
20 24.3 15 F/5 M Interradicular bone between the bilateral maxillary second premolar and first molar Pain following microimplant treatment 3 months 1.2 diameter and 8 length. Non self-drilling. Absoanchor; Dentos, Daegu, Korea Low-speed (400–500 rpm) pilot drill handpiece (diameter, 1 mm) used to penetrate the cortical level of bone only
et al.15
Case report 1 20 F Interdental alveolar bone, distal to the maxillary canines at the mucogingival junction Scar lesion at the miniscrew removal site 3 months Two self-drilling orthodontic miniscrews (1016107; Ortholution, Seoul, Korea) -
Er et al.16
Case report 1 22 F Bilaterally behind the incisive canal in the palatal interradicular spaces between the lateral incisor and canine Periradicular lesion caused by unintentional root damage 10 months Aarthus Anchorage System; MediconeG, Tuttlingen, Germany. 1.5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length -
et al.34
Prospective study 55 16–52 54 M/1 F Interradicular space in mandible and maxilla Minor and major contact of adjacent teeth; loss of vitality, granulation tissue 7 months Transalveolar screws: 2.0 mm titanium capstan headed screws -
Fäh and
Retrospective study 146 19.5 years (implantations); 22.8 years (explantations) 104 implantations (33 M/71 F); 44 explantations (9 M/35 F) Median and paramedian Complication associated with the implantation: no primary stability, prolonged pain, secondary bleeding, perforation of nasal floor, necrotic mucosa, sensory impairment - Palatal implant (Orthosystem; Institut Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland). Self-tapping Placed according to the Straumann guidelines for respective palatal implants. After local anesthesia, the palatal mucosa was either removed with a punch and an elevator or by open flap technique. After marking the center of the site with round drill, the hole was drilled by spiral drills. The self-tapping implant was inserted by hand with a ratchet. After the orthodontic treatment the palatal implant was removed using trephin
Complication associated with the explantation: disturbed wound healing, perforation of nasal floor, secondary bleeding, fracture of the implant
et al.17
Case report 1 11 M Insertion of palatal miniscrew at the height of the second palatal rugae Anchorage and bone loss around insertion site 14 months 6 mm miniscrew (3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA) -
et al.36
Case series 4 24.3 3 F/1 M Buccal insertion either between the second premolar and the first molar or between the first and second molars, at a 45° angle to the occlusal plane Protrusion of the screw into sinus - Orthodontic miniscrews (Vector TAS; Ormco, Brea, CA, USA) of different lengths and diameters -
Gurdan and
Retrospective study 47 - F Palate, buccal fold, ascending ramus Peri-implant inflammation in bone and in soft tissue, screw fracture 2 years One or more self-drilling mini-screws (Jeil Dual Top Anchor System; Jeil Medical Corp., Seoul, Korea) with a dimension of 1.6 mm × 8 mm Every screw was placed hand driven with the screwdriver tool of the mini-implant system
et al.27
Retrospective study 284 14.4 years
(± 8.8)
182 F/102 M Paramedian insertion in the anterior palate: at second rugae (76); between second and third rugae (24); at third rugae (468) Loss to pulp sensibility testing (PST) of maxillary front teeth - OrthoEasy®, Forestadent, Pforzheim, Germany (1.7 mm diameter, length 8 mm); anodized surface and features a self-tapping and cutting design (Ti-6Al-4 V) OMIs inserted without soft tissue incision or pre-drilling, perpendicularto the bone surface, using a motorised dentalhandpiece at an insertion speed of 60 RPM. Torque limitationwas 30 Ncm
Hwang and
Case report 1 46 M Interradicular area between the central and lateral incisors Root perforation of mandibular lateral incisor 1 year
Jia et al.28
Retrospective study 32 28 ± 6 years 10 M/22 F Infrazygomatic crest Penetration of infrazygomatic crest miniimplants into the sinus 13 months Self-drilling mini-implants (A1, Penghua, Taiwan; stainless steel, 2 mm in diameter, 12–17 mm in length according to the individual anatomic variation). The mean length of the mini-implant was 14 mm, and the mean embedded angulation was 29.6° Incision in the buccal keratinized gingiva near the mucogingival junction of the maxillary first molar, limited to less than 2 mm. A hand screwdriver used for mini-implant insertion
Jung et al.29
Study cohort 66 F: 28.5 ± 10.02 years;
M: 28.9 ± 8.87 years
52 F/14 M Buccolingual insertion sites: maxillary buccal and mandibular buccal (within the attached gingiva, at the mucogingival junction, or within the alveolar mucosa), palatal slope, and midpalatal regions Soft tissue scarring 6–58
Two types of selfdrilling Miniscrew: cylindrical type (1.5 mm indiameter, 7 mm in length; ACR OAS-T1507, BiomaterialsKorea, Seoul, Korea) or combined cylindricaland tapered type (1.8 mm in diameter, 7 mm in length;Orlus Classic 1O18107, Ortholution, Seoul, Korea) Hand driver used to insert and remove miniscrew
Lee et al.19
Case report 1 21 F Interradicular area, mesial and apical to the left maxillary second premolars Root perforation 3 years 1.5 × 8.0 mm, Biomaterials Korea, Seoul, Korea. Miniscrew’s sharp drilling tip -
Lim et al.23
Case report 1 44 M Buccal and palatal interradicular attached gingiva between the left maxillary first and second molars Root damage 3 years 1.8 mm in diameter and 7-mm long (Orlus 1O18107; Orlus Korea, Seoul, Korea) Miniscrews inserted using the self-drilled manual method
et al.20
Case report 1 - - Interradicular between the maxillarycentral incisors Traumatic lesion in the frenulum - - -
Case report 1 25 F Interradicular area between the maxillary second premolar and first molar tooth Root perforation, miniscrew’s tip fractured 5 years Two self-screwing 8-mm long 1.3–1.2 mm tapered miniscrews Round bur used to mark the attached buccal mucosa and cortical bone
et al.32
Prospective study 45 23.3 ± 8.9 years 28 F/17 M Maxillary alveolar bone between second premolar and first molar Maxillary sinus perforation - Self-drill miniscrews (ISA orthodontic anchor screw; diameter, 1.6 mm; length, 8 mm; Biodent, Tokyo, Japan) A hand screwdriver used to place the miniscrew without a pilot hole so that it was inclined at 40° to 60° from vertical to the adjacent tooth axis
Qin et al.22
Case report 1 23 F Between the root apices of the maxillary central incisors Pink discoloration of the tooth and no response to EPT suggesting pulp necrosis 15 months One 6-mm-long, 1.6-mm-diameter ‘Tomas’ miniscrew implant -
et al.33
Prospective study 50 21.8 ± 5.7 35 F/15 M Buccal alveolar bone between roots of maxillary central and lateral incisors on both sides Root contact by mini implants - Commercial mini-implants (diameter, 1.6 mm; length, 8 mm; ISA orthodontic mini-implants; Biodent, Tokyo, Japan) A pilot hole drilled in the buccal alveolar bone between the second premolar and the first molar of the maxilla or the mandible without creation of a flap. The pilot hole inclined 45° to 60° vertically to the adjacent tooth axis
et al.30
Retrospective study 455 M: 23.8 ± 9.2 years; F: 26.2 ± 9.9 years 97 M/358 F Mini andmicroscrew: mandible (anterior alveolar region, posterior alveolar region, external oblique ridge, retro-molar region), maxilla (anterior alveolar region, posterior alveolar region, posterior alveolar palate region, median suture, paramedian suture, maxillary zygomatic butress); PIAS: mandible (posterior alveolar region, retro-molar region), maxilla (anterior alveolar region, median suture, paramedian suture) Acute and chronic inflammation (granulation tissue) of the soft tissue surrounding implant - Two different self-drilling titanium miniscrew implant systems (Dualtop autoscrew; Jeil Medical Corp., Seoul, Korea; OSAS; DEWIMED Co. Ltd., Tuttlingen, Germany), one pre-drilling microimplant system (K1 system; Dentsply-Sankin, Tokyo, Japan) and a palatal implant anchorage system (PIAS, Tokyo Dental College, Tokyo, Japan) Micro- and mini-implants inserted into the gingival or palate and placed according to their manifacturers’ protocols
et al.35
Preliminary report 54 21.8 years 34 F/20 M Buccal alveolar bone between the second premolar and first molar, between the first and second molars, between the second and third molars. Three angulations: 10–30°, 30–60°, 60–80°. Two different occlusogingival position: less than 3 mm from the mucogingival line, more than 3 mm from the mucoginigval line Buccal mucosal lesion and trauma associated to miniscrew 5 years Aarthus miniscrews (prism shaped head, 3 mm in diameter and 2.3 mm long) -
et al.31
Retrospective study 41 15.1 years 19 M/22 F Recommended location and slight deviation: half of the distance of the perpendicular line segment from raphe to the palatal cusp tip of the first bicuspid Overgrowth, defined as the partial or complete covering of the implant head by soft tissue, palatal mucosa 6 months Screws with necks of 3 or 5 mm; thread 8 mm long and 2 mm in diameter Insertion using a surgical handpiece

F, female; M, male; OMI, orthodontic miniscrew implant; EPT, electric pulp testing.

Korean J Orthod 2021;51:199~216 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2021.51.3.199
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