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Table. 7.

Risk-of-bias assessment

Studies Selection Comparability Outcome



Representativeness of the exposed cohort Selection of
the non
exposed
cohort
Ascertainment
of exposure
Demonstration that outcome of interest was not present at start of study Comparability of cohorts on the basis of the design or analysis Assessment of outcome Was follow-up long enough for outcomes to
occur
Adequacy of
follow up of cohorts
Chen et al.24 - - - - -
Fäh and Schätzle25 - - - -
Gurdan and Szalma26 - - -
Hourfar et al.27 - - - -
Jia et al.28 - - - -
Jung et al.29 - - -
Takaki et al.30 - - - -
Ziebura et al.31 - - -

The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale consists of 8 multiple-choice questions that address subject selection (4 questions), comparability (1 question), and outcome assessment (3 questions). High-quality responses would be awarded up to 9 points (the comparability question earns up to 2 points).

Korean J Orthod 2021;51:199~216 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2021.51.3.199
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