pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

Clinical and cephalometric variables included in this study

Variable Description
Sex Female or male
Model variable
Overjet (mm) The distance between the incisal tips of the upper and lower incisors measured in the horizontal plane
Overbite (mm) The distance between the incisal tips of the upper and lower incisors measured in the vertical plane
Maxillary arch discrepancy (mm) Maxillary difference between the space available and the sum of the mesiodistal tooth width from second premolar to second premolar
Mandibular arch discrepancy (mm) Mandibular difference between the space available and the sum of the mesiodistal tooth width from second premolar to second premolar
Anterior bolton discrepancy (mm) Measure of the difference between the sum of the mesiodistal width of the front six mandibular teeth and the sum of the mesodistal width of the front six maxillary teeth multiplied by 0.772
Molar class, modified Numerical quantification in terms of cusps of difference, that is, with Class I being the value zero, a Class II of 1 cusp being a +1 and a Class III of 1 cusp being –1, and there are intermediate values such as, for example, a quarter cusp (0.25), a half cusp (0.5) and three quarters cusp (0.75)
Canine class, modified Numerical quantification in terms of cusps of difference, that is, with Class I being the value zero, a Class II of 1 cusp being a +1 and a Class III of 1 cusp being –1, and there are intermediate values such as, for example, a quarter cusp (0.25), a half cusp (0.5) and three quarters cusp (0.75)
Sagittal cephalometric variable
ANB (°) The angle formed by the Nasion-Point A plane and Nasion-Point B plane
SNA (°) The angle formed by the Sella-Nasion plane and the Nasion-Point A plane
SNB (°) The angle formed by the Sella-Nasion plane and the Nasion-Point B plane
Ricketts’ facial convexity (mm) The distance between Point A and the facial plane
Ricketts’ maxillary depth (°) The angle formed by the Frankfort plane and the plane from Nasion to Point A
Ricketts’ facial depth (°) The angle between the facial plane and Frankfort plane
Articular angle (S-Ar-Go) (°) The angle formed by the Sella-Articulare plane and the Articulare-Gonion plane
Upper gonial angle (Ar-Go-N) (°) The angle formed by the Articulare-Gonion plane and the Gonion-Nasion plane
Wits analysis (mm) Distance between the AO and BO Points, along the occlusal plane
Maxillomandibular difference (mm) Difference between the Condylion-Anterior Nasal Spine distance and the Condylion-Pogonion distance
Cephalometric overjet (mm) The distance between the incisal tips of the upper and lower incisors measured along the occlusal plane
Molar relationship (mm) The distance between the distal surfaces of the lower and upper molars measured along the occlusal plane
Vertical cephalometric variable
Face height ratio (N-ANS/ANS-Me) (%) Proportion between the Nasion-Anterior Nasal Spine distance and the Anterior Nasal Spine-Menton distance
Gonial angle (Ar-Go-Me) (°) The angle formed by the Articulare-Gonion plane and the Gonion-Menton plane
Sum of the angles (°) Sum of the Articulare-Sella-Nasion angle, the Articular angle and the Gonial angle
Lower gonial angle (N-Go-Me) (°) The angle formed by the Nasion-Gonion plane and the Gonion-Menton plane
Jarabak Index (%) The ratio of posterior facial height (Sella-Gonion) to anterior facial height (Nasion-Gnathion)
SN-GoGn (°) The angle formed by the Sella-Nasion plane and the Gonion-Gnathion plane
PP-MP (°) The angle formed by the palatal plane and the mandibular plane
FMA (°) The angle formed by the Frankfort plane and the mandibular plane
Ricketts’ facial axis (°) The angle formed by the Pt Point-Gnathion plane and the Nasion-Basion plane
Cephalometric overbite (mm) The distance between the tips of the lower and upper incisors measured perpendicular to the occlusal plane
Dental cephalometric variable
U1-APo (mm) The distance from the tip of the upper incisor to the “A-Po” plane
U1-PP (°) The angle between the long axis of the upper incisor and the palatal plane
L1-APo (mm) The distance from the tip of the lower incisor to the “A-Po” plane
IMPA (°) The angle between the long axis of the lower incisor and the mandibular plane
Interincisal angle (°) The angle formed by the long axes of the central incisors
Soft tissue cephalometric variable
Labial gap (mm) The distance between the upper and lower Stomions, measured in the vertical plane
Upper lip to SnPg’ (mm) The distance between the upper Labrale and the Subnasal-Soft Tissue Pogonion plane, along the horizontal plane
Lower lip to SnPg’ (mm) The distance between the lower Labrale and the Subnasal-Soft Tissue Pogonion plane, along the horizontal plane
Upper lip to subnasal vertical (mm) The distance between the upper Labrale and a vertical plane proyected over Subnasal Point
Lower lip to subnasal vertical (mm) The distance between the lower Labrale and a vertical plane proyected over Subnasal Point
Upper incisor exposure (mm) The distance between the tips of the upper incisor and the upper Stomion, along the vertical plane
Outcome variable
Extractions NO/YES Extractions done or not in the patient due to orthodontic reasons
Korean J Orthod 2022;52:102~111 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2022.52.2.102
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