pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

Table. 1.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria: PICOS framework

Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Participants (P)

- Adult

- Maxillary transverse deficiency

- Children, Growing

- Systemic disease/craniofacial anomalies/syndrome

Intervention (I)

- Non orthognatic surgery

- 4 microimplant assisted rapid maxillary expansion


- In-vitro/Laboratory/Molecular/Cellular/Animal – Surgery

- Finite element study


- Bone distraction

- Tooth borne RME

- 2 microimplant assisted rapid maxillary expansion

Comparison (C): compared vs. post treatment or MARPE vs. SARPE
Outcome measures (O)

- Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)

- Skeletal and dental changes

- Non- CBCT

Study design (S)

- Randomized controlled trial (RCT)

- Cohort study

- Case-control study

- One-group pretest-posttest design

- Case report/Case series/Opinions/Letter to editor

- Narrative review/Summary

- Systematic review/Meta-analysis

- Non-English

RME, rapid maxillary expansion; RPE, rapid palatal expansion; MARME, microimplant assisted rapid maxillary expansion; MARPE, miniscrew assisted rapid palatal expansion; MSE, maxillary skeletal expansion; SARME, surgically-assisted RME; SARPE, surgically-assisted RPE.

Korean J Orthod 2022;52:182~200 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod21.256
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