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Table. 3.

Outcomes classified by skeletal, alveolar molar width, and dental expansion

Variable Author N Mean SD Combined measurements
ZMW Elkenawy et al.25 (2020) 31 3.99 1.60
Li et al.26 (2020) 22 0.50 1.00
Li et al.11 (2020) 48 1.77 0.90 3 groups*
Tang et al.7 (2021) 31 1.45 1.04
NW Calil et al.13 (2021) 16 2.82 1.54
Jesus et al.22 (2021) 12 3.46 1.95 ant./post.*
Li et al.26 (2020) 22 2.30 1.20
Li et al.11 (2020) 48 3.58 1.39 3 groups*
Lim et al.15 (2017) 24 2.20 1.01
Moon et al.27 (2020) 24 2.45 1.37
Ngan et al.18 (2018) 8 2.53 0.53
de Oliveira et al.24 (2021) 17 2.91 1.62 ant./post.*
Tang et al.7 (2021) 31 2.33 1.22
J-J Calil et al.13 (2021) 16 3.06 1.81
Jesus et al.22 (2021) 12 3.20 1.92
Li et al.26 (2020) 22 2.00 1.00
Li et al.11 (2020) 48 4.69 1.31 3 groups*
Tang et al.7 (2021) 31 2.65 0.98
PNS Cantarella et al.16 (2017) 15 4.33 1.74
Elkenawy et al.25 (2020) 31 4.77 2.65
Ngan et al.18 (2018) 8 3.27 0.46
Nguyen et al.28 (2021) 20 3.95 0.50
de Oliveira et al.24 (2021) 17 2.75 0.85
ANS Cantarella et al.16 (2017) 15 4.75 2.59
Elkenawy et al.25 (2020) 31 4.98 1.94
Ngan et al.18 (2018) 8 3.53 0.80
Nguyen et al.28 (2021) 20 4.83 0.53
de Oliveira et al.24 (2021) 17 3.69 1.42

N, sample size; SD, standard deviation; ZMW, zygomatic width; NW, nasal width; J-J, jugular width; PNS, midpalatal suture at the posterior nasal spine; ANS, midpalatal suture at the anterior nasal spine.

*Combined mean and SD from multiple groups using an online calculator https://www.statstodo.com/CombineMeansSDs.php

Korean J Orthod 2022;52:182~200 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod21.256
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