pISSN 2234-7518

eISSN 2005-372X

eISSN 2005-372X

Definitions of cephalometric reference planes and measurements

Reference planes and measurements | Definitions |
---|---|

Horizontal reference plane (HRP) | Oriented 7° below the sella-nasion line and passing through sella |

Vertical reference plane (VRP) | Perpendicular to the HRP and passing through sella |

VRP-U1e | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to upper central incisor (U1) edge |

VRP-U1c | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to center of resistance of the U1 |

VRP-U1a | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to root apex of the U1 |

VRP-L1e | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to lower central incisor (L1) edge |

VRP-L1c | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to center of resistance of the L1 |

VRP-L1a | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to root apex of the L1 |

HRP-U1e | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to U1 edge |

HRP-U1c | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to center of resistance of the U1 |

HRP-U1a | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to root apex of the U1 |

HRP-L1e | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to L1 edge |

HRP-L1c | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to center of resistance of the L1 |

HRP-L1a | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to root apex of the L1 |

VRP-A | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to A point |

VRP-B | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to B point |

VRP-Pog | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to pogonion |

HRP-A | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to A point |

HRP-B | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to B point |

HRP-Pog | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to pogonion |

VRP-Sn | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to subnasale |

VRP-A’ | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to soft tissue point A |

VRP-Ls | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to labrale superioris |

VRP-ULa | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to the most anterior point of upper lip |

VRP-Stms | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to stomion superioris |

VRP-Stmi | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to stomion inferioris |

VRP-LLa | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to the most anterior point of lower lip |

VRP-Li | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to labrale inferioris |

VRP-B’ | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to soft tissue point B |

VRP-Pog’ | Perpendicular distance from the VRP to soft tissue pogonion |

HRP-Sn | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to subnasale |

HRP-A’ | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to soft tissue point A |

HRP-Ls | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to labrale superioris |

HRP-ULa | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to the most anterior point of upper lip |

HRP-Stms | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to stomion superioris |

HRP-Stmi | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to stomion inferioris |

HRP-LLa | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to the most anterior point of lower lip |

HRP-Li | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to labrale inferioris |

HRP-B’ | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to soft tissue point B |

HRP-Pog’ | Perpendicular distance from the HRP to soft tissue pogonion |

Korean J Orthod 2022;52:42~52 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2022.52.1.42

© Korean J Orthod

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