pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

Table. 2.

Definitions of cephalometric reference planes and measurements

Reference planes and measurements Definitions
Horizontal reference plane (HRP) Oriented 7° below the sella-nasion line and passing through sella
Vertical reference plane (VRP) Perpendicular to the HRP and passing through sella
VRP-U1e Perpendicular distance from the VRP to upper central incisor (U1) edge
VRP-U1c Perpendicular distance from the VRP to center of resistance of the U1
VRP-U1a Perpendicular distance from the VRP to root apex of the U1
VRP-L1e Perpendicular distance from the VRP to lower central incisor (L1) edge
VRP-L1c Perpendicular distance from the VRP to center of resistance of the L1
VRP-L1a Perpendicular distance from the VRP to root apex of the L1
HRP-U1e Perpendicular distance from the HRP to U1 edge
HRP-U1c Perpendicular distance from the HRP to center of resistance of the U1
HRP-U1a Perpendicular distance from the HRP to root apex of the U1
HRP-L1e Perpendicular distance from the HRP to L1 edge
HRP-L1c Perpendicular distance from the HRP to center of resistance of the L1
HRP-L1a Perpendicular distance from the HRP to root apex of the L1
VRP-A Perpendicular distance from the VRP to A point
VRP-B Perpendicular distance from the VRP to B point
VRP-Pog Perpendicular distance from the VRP to pogonion
HRP-A Perpendicular distance from the HRP to A point
HRP-B Perpendicular distance from the HRP to B point
HRP-Pog Perpendicular distance from the HRP to pogonion
VRP-Sn Perpendicular distance from the VRP to subnasale
VRP-A’ Perpendicular distance from the VRP to soft tissue point A
VRP-Ls Perpendicular distance from the VRP to labrale superioris
VRP-ULa Perpendicular distance from the VRP to the most anterior point of upper lip
VRP-Stms Perpendicular distance from the VRP to stomion superioris
VRP-Stmi Perpendicular distance from the VRP to stomion inferioris
VRP-LLa Perpendicular distance from the VRP to the most anterior point of lower lip
VRP-Li Perpendicular distance from the VRP to labrale inferioris
VRP-B’ Perpendicular distance from the VRP to soft tissue point B
VRP-Pog’ Perpendicular distance from the VRP to soft tissue pogonion
HRP-Sn Perpendicular distance from the HRP to subnasale
HRP-A’ Perpendicular distance from the HRP to soft tissue point A
HRP-Ls Perpendicular distance from the HRP to labrale superioris
HRP-ULa Perpendicular distance from the HRP to the most anterior point of upper lip
HRP-Stms Perpendicular distance from the HRP to stomion superioris
HRP-Stmi Perpendicular distance from the HRP to stomion inferioris
HRP-LLa Perpendicular distance from the HRP to the most anterior point of lower lip
HRP-Li Perpendicular distance from the HRP to labrale inferioris
HRP-B’ Perpendicular distance from the HRP to soft tissue point B
HRP-Pog’ Perpendicular distance from the HRP to soft tissue pogonion
Korean J Orthod 2022;52:42~52 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2022.52.1.42
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