pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

Skeletal and pharyngeal airway changes during the control, maxillary protraction, and follow-up periods

Stage T0 T1 T2 T3 p T1–T0 T2–T0 T3–T0 T2–T1 T3–T1 T3–T2
Ad1-PNS (mm) 23.5 ± 5.3 24.2 ± 5.0 24.5 ± 5.4 23.5 ± 7.0 0.304 0.6 ± 2.2 0.9 ± 3.4 0.0 ± 6.6 0.2 ± 3.1 0.7 ± 6.6 0.9 ± 6.3
Ad2-PNS (mm) 18.1 ± 4.4 18.6 ± 3.2 19.8 ± 4.0 21.1 ± 3.8 0.001** 0.5 ± 2.0 1.6 ± 2.1* 3.0 ± 3.7* 1.1 ± 2.2 2.4 ± 3.7 1.3 ± 3.1
PAS (mm) 24.2 ± 3.3 25.2 ± 3.3 25.9 ± 3.7 25.2 ± 3.4 0.304 1.0 ± 3.1 1.7 ± 3.6 0.9 ± 4.3 0.7 ± 2.7 0.0 ± 3.4 0.7 ± 3.5
SPAS (mm) 11.8 ± 2.1 12.0 ± 2.5 12.2 ± 1.9 11.5 ± 2.2 0.638 0.2 ± 1.7 0.4 ± 2.1 0.2 ± 2.1 0.2 ± 1.7 0.4 ± 2.2 0.6 ± 2.0
MAS (mm) 11.0 ± 2.9 11.3 ± 2.3 10.8 ± 2.9 11.4 ± 3.9 0.788 0.3 ± 1.8 0.1 ± 2.7 0.4 ± 2.7 0.4 ± 2.3 0.1 ± 2.7 0.5 ± 2.1
IAS (mm) 11.6 ± 2.7 11.6 ± 2.2 11.5 ± 4.0 10.8 ± 2.8 0.624 0.0 ± 1.7 0.1 ± 3.4 0.8 ± 2.8 0.1 ± 3.4 0.8 ± 2.3 0.7 ± 3.2
EAS (mm) 8.9 ± 1.9 9.2 ± 2.0 8.4 ± 2.0 8.8 ± 2.4 0.361 0.3 ± 1.7 0.5 ± 1.7 0.1 ± 2.2 0.8 ± 2.2 0.4 ± 2.6 0.4 ± 1.1
RP1-A (mm) 52.6 ± 4.5 52.5 ± 4.4 52.3 ± 4.9 53.6 ± 5.1 0.043*§ 0.1 ± 1.1 0.2 ± 1.6 0.9 ± 1.9 0.1 ± 1.1 1.0 ± 1.4 1.2 ± 1.6
RP1-PNS (mm) 44.7 ± 3.0 45.1 ± 3.0 45.9 ± 2.6 46.4 ± 2.5 0.000*** 0.3 ± 1.2 1.2 ± 1.4* 1.7 ± 1.7* 0.8 ± 1.0 1.3 ± 1.8 0.5 ± 1.3
SNA (°) 78.2 ± 3.4 78.2 ± 3.2 81.1 ± 3.5 81.6 ± 3.6 0.000***§ 0.0 ± 0.45 2.9 ± 1.2** 3.4 ± 1.5** 2.9 ± 1.1** 3.4 ± 1.5** 0.5 ± 1.3
SNB (°) 81.9 ± 3.4 82.0 ± 3.6 81.0 ± 3.3 81.5 ± 4.0 0.063 0.1 ± 0.6 0.9 ± 1.4 0.3 ± 1.8 1.0 ± 1.5 0.5 ± 1.5 0.5 ± 2.0
ANB (°) 3.7 ± 2.4 3.8 ± 2.7 0.1 ± 2.9 0.1 ± 2.1 0.000***§ 0.1 ± 0.6 3.83 ± 2.0** 3.8 ± 1.3** 3.9 ± 2.0** 3.9 ± 1.5** 0.0 ± 2.5
N⊥A (mm) 2.7 ± 2.5 2.6 ± 2.6 1.1 ± 3.2 1.1 ± 3.7 0.000*** 0.0 ± 0.5 3.8 ± 1.5*** 3.8 ± 2.2*** 3.7 ± 1.4*** 3.7 ± 2.1*** 0.0 ± 1.2
FMA (°) 24.8 ± 6.7 24.6 ± 7.0 25.8 ± 6.5 24.0 ± 7.2 0.005***§ 0.2 ± 1.0 1.0 ± 1.2 0.8 ± 2.1 1.2 ± 1.0** 0.6 ± 2.0 1.8 ± 2.2
S-Go (mm) 79.1 ± 7.8 79.7 ± 8.1 80.3 ± 8.8 84.3 ± 9.5 0.000***§ 0.6 ± 1.2 1.1 ± 1.9 5.1 ± 3.0** 0.6 ± 1.2 4.5 ± 2.8** 4.0 ± 2.5**

Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation.

T0, an average of 5.5 months before maxillary protraction; T1, pre-protraction, before cementation of the acrylic splint; T2, post-protraction, after debonding of the acrylic splint; T3, follow-up, including fixed orthodontic treatment and follow-up stages.

*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

Repeated-measures ANOVA.

Bonferroni multiple comparison.

§Friedman test.

Wilcoxon signed-rank test (with Bonferroni correction).

See Table 2 for definition of the planes and the measurements.

Korean J Orthod 2023;53:35~44 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod22.117
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