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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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Original Article

Korean J Orthod 2021; 51(1): 55-74

Published online January 25, 2021 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2021.51.1.55

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

The global distribution of permanent canine hypodontia: A systematic review

Saritha Sivarajana , Shani Ann Mania, Jacob Johnb, Mona M. Salah Fayedc, Yoon-Ah Kookd, Mang Chek Weya

aDepartment of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
bDepartment of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
cDepartment of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
dDepartment of Dentistry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea

Correspondence to:Wey Mang Chek.
Associate Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.
Tel +0176355746 e-mail weymc@um.edu.my

Received: April 29, 2020; Revised: September 13, 2020; Accepted: September 16, 2020

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective: To systematically review studies on canine agenesis prevalence in different populations and continents, based on the jaw, sex, location, and associated dental anomalies. Methods: Electronic and hand searches of English literature in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, OpenGrey, and Science Direct were conducted, and the authors were contacted when necessary. Observational studies (population-based, hospital/clinic-based, and cross-sectional) were included. For study appraisal and synthesis, duplicate selection was performed independently by two reviewers. Study quality was assessed using a modified Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist, with main outcome of prevalence of canine agenesis. Results: The global population prevalence of canine agenesis was 0.30% (0.0−4.7%), highest in Asia (0.54%), followed by Africa (0.33%), and the least in Europe and South America (0.19% in both continents). Canine agenesis was more common in the maxilla (88.57%), followed by both maxilla and mandible (8.57%), and the least common was mandible-only presentation (2.86%). The condition was more common in females (female:male ratio = 1.23), except in Asia (female:male ratio = 0.88) and Africa (female:male ratio = 1). In Asia, unilateral agenesis was almost twice as prevalent as bilateral, but in Europe, the bilateral form was more common. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of canine agenesis is 0.30%, with the highest prevalence in Asia, followed by Africa, Europe, and South America. The condition is more common in the maxilla than the mandible, and in females than males (except in Asia and Africa), with unilateral agenesis being more common in Asia and the bilateral form showing a greater prevalence in Europe.

Keywords: Canine agenesis, Prevalence, Continents

Article

Original Article

Korean J Orthod 2021; 51(1): 55-74

Published online January 25, 2021 https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2021.51.1.55

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

The global distribution of permanent canine hypodontia: A systematic review

Saritha Sivarajana , Shani Ann Mania, Jacob Johnb, Mona M. Salah Fayedc, Yoon-Ah Kookd, Mang Chek Weya

aDepartment of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
bDepartment of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
cDepartment of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
dDepartment of Dentistry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea

Correspondence to:Wey Mang Chek.
Associate Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.
Tel +0176355746 e-mail weymc@um.edu.my

Received: April 29, 2020; Revised: September 13, 2020; Accepted: September 16, 2020

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective: To systematically review studies on canine agenesis prevalence in different populations and continents, based on the jaw, sex, location, and associated dental anomalies. Methods: Electronic and hand searches of English literature in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, OpenGrey, and Science Direct were conducted, and the authors were contacted when necessary. Observational studies (population-based, hospital/clinic-based, and cross-sectional) were included. For study appraisal and synthesis, duplicate selection was performed independently by two reviewers. Study quality was assessed using a modified Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist, with main outcome of prevalence of canine agenesis. Results: The global population prevalence of canine agenesis was 0.30% (0.0−4.7%), highest in Asia (0.54%), followed by Africa (0.33%), and the least in Europe and South America (0.19% in both continents). Canine agenesis was more common in the maxilla (88.57%), followed by both maxilla and mandible (8.57%), and the least common was mandible-only presentation (2.86%). The condition was more common in females (female:male ratio = 1.23), except in Asia (female:male ratio = 0.88) and Africa (female:male ratio = 1). In Asia, unilateral agenesis was almost twice as prevalent as bilateral, but in Europe, the bilateral form was more common. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of canine agenesis is 0.30%, with the highest prevalence in Asia, followed by Africa, Europe, and South America. The condition is more common in the maxilla than the mandible, and in females than males (except in Asia and Africa), with unilateral agenesis being more common in Asia and the bilateral form showing a greater prevalence in Europe.

Keywords: Canine agenesis, Prevalence, Continents