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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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eISSN 2005-372X
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Korean J Orthod

Published online January 7, 2021

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

Characterization of Phenotypes and Predominant Skeletodental Pattern in Pre-adolescent Patients with Pierre-Robin Sequence

Il-Hyung Yanga , Jee Hyeok Chungb , Hyeok Joon Leec, Il-Sik Chod, Jin-Young Choie, Jong-Ho Leef, Sukwha Kimg, Seung-Hak Baek,h

a Assistant Professor, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea (drortho@snu.ac.kr; +82-2-2072-4701; orcid number: 0000-0001-6398-4607)

b Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Seoul National University Children Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea (griffin7@unitel.co.kr; +82-2-2072-0063; 0000-0003-0189-2541)

c PhD student, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea (gurwns1224@gmail.com; +82-2-2072-2678)

d Private practice, Seoulbarun orthodontic clinic, Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea (microphage@naver.com; +82-54-281-7482)

e Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, 03080, South Korea. (jinychoi@snu.ac.kr. +82-2-2072-3992)

f Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, 03080, South Korea. (leejongh@snu.ac.kr. +82-2-2072-2630)

g Professor, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea (kimsw@snu.ac.kr; +82-2-2072-3530)

h Professor, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea (drwhite@unitel.co.kr; +82-2-2072-3952; orcid number: 0000-0002-6586-9503)

Correspondence to:Dr. Seung-Hak Baek, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Daehak-ro #101, Jongro-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea. E-mail: drwhite@unitel.co.kr; Tel: +82-2-2072-3952; Fax: Tel: +82-2-2072-3817; Orcid number: 0000-0002-6586-9503

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the phenotypes and predominant skeletodental pattern in pre-adolescent patients with Pierre-Robin sequence (PRS).
Materials and Methods: The samples consisted of 26 Korean pre-adolescent PRS patients (11 boys and 15 girls; mean age at cephalometric analysis and phenotype investigation, 9.20 years), who were treated at Department of Orthodontics, XXXXX National University Dental Hospital during 1998-2019. After dental phenotypes, oral manifestation, cephalometric variables, and associated anomalies were investigated, statistical analysis was performed.
Results: Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) were found at 34.6% of patients (n=9/26, 20 teeth, 2.22 teeth per patient). In CMT, 55.5% of patients (n=5/9) showed bilateral and symmetric missing pattern. The most prevalent CMT was the mandibular incisors (n=11/20). The predominant skeletodental patterns were the Class II relationship (57.7%), posteriorly positioned maxilla (76.9%), posteriorly positioned mandible (92.3%), hyper-divergent pattern (92.3%), high gonial angle (65.4%), small mandibular body length to anterior cranial base ratio (65.4%), linguoversion of the maxillary incisors (76.9%), and linguoversion of the mandibular incisors (80.8%). Incomplete cleft palate (CP) of hard palate with complete soft palate CP (61.5%) was the most frequent one than other types (complete CP of hard and soft palate, 19.2%; soft palate CP, 19.2%; P<0.05). However, CP severity did not show significant correlation with cephalometric variables except IMPA (P<0.05). 53.8% of PRS patients had 5 craniofacial and 15 extra-craniofacial anomalies, which implicated a need of routine screening.
Conclusion: These results might provide a primary data for individualized diagnosis and treatment planning for pre-adolescent PRS patients despite a single university hospital-based data.

Keywords: Pierre-Robin sequence, phenotype, skeletodental pattern

Article

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Korean J Orthod

Published online January 7, 2021

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

Characterization of Phenotypes and Predominant Skeletodental Pattern in Pre-adolescent Patients with Pierre-Robin Sequence

Il-Hyung Yanga , Jee Hyeok Chungb , Hyeok Joon Leec, Il-Sik Chod, Jin-Young Choie, Jong-Ho Leef, Sukwha Kimg, Seung-Hak Baek,h

a Assistant Professor, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea (drortho@snu.ac.kr; +82-2-2072-4701; orcid number: 0000-0001-6398-4607)

b Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Seoul National University Children Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea (griffin7@unitel.co.kr; +82-2-2072-0063; 0000-0003-0189-2541)

c PhD student, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea (gurwns1224@gmail.com; +82-2-2072-2678)

d Private practice, Seoulbarun orthodontic clinic, Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea (microphage@naver.com; +82-54-281-7482)

e Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, 03080, South Korea. (jinychoi@snu.ac.kr. +82-2-2072-3992)

f Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, 03080, South Korea. (leejongh@snu.ac.kr. +82-2-2072-2630)

g Professor, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea (kimsw@snu.ac.kr; +82-2-2072-3530)

h Professor, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea (drwhite@unitel.co.kr; +82-2-2072-3952; orcid number: 0000-0002-6586-9503)

Correspondence to:Dr. Seung-Hak Baek, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Daehak-ro #101, Jongro-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea. E-mail: drwhite@unitel.co.kr; Tel: +82-2-2072-3952; Fax: Tel: +82-2-2072-3817; Orcid number: 0000-0002-6586-9503

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the phenotypes and predominant skeletodental pattern in pre-adolescent patients with Pierre-Robin sequence (PRS).
Materials and Methods: The samples consisted of 26 Korean pre-adolescent PRS patients (11 boys and 15 girls; mean age at cephalometric analysis and phenotype investigation, 9.20 years), who were treated at Department of Orthodontics, XXXXX National University Dental Hospital during 1998-2019. After dental phenotypes, oral manifestation, cephalometric variables, and associated anomalies were investigated, statistical analysis was performed.
Results: Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) were found at 34.6% of patients (n=9/26, 20 teeth, 2.22 teeth per patient). In CMT, 55.5% of patients (n=5/9) showed bilateral and symmetric missing pattern. The most prevalent CMT was the mandibular incisors (n=11/20). The predominant skeletodental patterns were the Class II relationship (57.7%), posteriorly positioned maxilla (76.9%), posteriorly positioned mandible (92.3%), hyper-divergent pattern (92.3%), high gonial angle (65.4%), small mandibular body length to anterior cranial base ratio (65.4%), linguoversion of the maxillary incisors (76.9%), and linguoversion of the mandibular incisors (80.8%). Incomplete cleft palate (CP) of hard palate with complete soft palate CP (61.5%) was the most frequent one than other types (complete CP of hard and soft palate, 19.2%; soft palate CP, 19.2%; P<0.05). However, CP severity did not show significant correlation with cephalometric variables except IMPA (P<0.05). 53.8% of PRS patients had 5 craniofacial and 15 extra-craniofacial anomalies, which implicated a need of routine screening.
Conclusion: These results might provide a primary data for individualized diagnosis and treatment planning for pre-adolescent PRS patients despite a single university hospital-based data.

Keywords: Pierre-Robin sequence, phenotype, skeletodental pattern