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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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Korean J Orthod

Published online January 11, 2021

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

Differences in Heritability of the Craniofacial Skeletal and Dental Characteristics Between Skeletal Class I and II Subjects

Heon-Mook Park 1 , Pil-Jong Kim 2, Joohon Sung 3, Yun-Mi Song 4, Hong-Gee Kim 5, Young Ho Kim 6, Seung-Hak Baek 7

1 PhD student, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea (seoulbarunsw@gmail.com, Orcid number: 0000-0002-0721-7240)
2 Research Assistant Professor, Biomedical Knowledge Engineering Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. (childcom@snu.ac.kr)
3 Professor, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea (jsung@snu.ac.kr)
4 Professor, Department of Family Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, and Center for Clinical Research, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea (yunmisong@skku.edu)
5 Professor, Biomedical Knowledge Engineering Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea (hgkim@snu.ac.kr)
6 Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Institute of Oral Health Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea (ajouorthod@naver.com)
7 Professor, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea (drwhite@unitel.co.kr; Tel: +82-2-2072-3952; Orcid number: 0000-0002-6586-9503)

Correspondence to:Dr. Seung-Hak Baek, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Daehak-no #101, Jongro-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea; E-mail: drwhite@unitel.co.kr; Tel:+82-2-2072-3952; Fax:+82-2-2072-3817

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective: To investigate differences in the heritability of skeletodental characteristics between skeletal Class I and Class II twin pairs.
Methods: Forty Korean adult twin pairs were divided into Class I group (0°≤ANB≤4°; mean age, 40.7 years-old) and Class II group (ANB>4°; mean age, 43.0 years-old). Each group comprised 14 monozygotic and 6 dizygotic pairs. 33 cephalometric variables were measured using lateral cephalograms. Craniofacial structures were divided into the anteroposterior, vertical, dental, mandible, and cranial base characteristics. The ACE model was used to calculate heritability (A>0.7 indicates high heritability). Then, principal components analysis (PCA) was performed.
Results: In the anteroposterior characteristics, high A values were observed for numerous variables in Class I group and for SNB and facial angle in Class II group. In the vertical characteristics, high A values were observed for FH-PP and PP-MP in Class I group and PP-MP, anterior and posterior facial height in Class II group. In the dental characteristics, high A values were observed only in Class I group. In the mandibular characteristics, CD-Gn and Ar-Go showed high A values in Class II group. The cranial base length variables (S-N, S-Ar, Ar-N) showed high A values in Class II group. The PCA demonstrated that Class I and Class II groups derived eight components with 88.3% cumulative explanation and seven components with 91.0% cumulative explanation, respectively.
Conclusion: The results exhibited differences in the heritability of skeletodental characteristics between skeletal Class I and II twin pairs, which might provide valuable information for growth prediction and treatment planning.

Keywords: heritability, twins, ACE model, principal components analysis

Article

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Korean J Orthod

Published online January 11, 2021

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

Differences in Heritability of the Craniofacial Skeletal and Dental Characteristics Between Skeletal Class I and II Subjects

Heon-Mook Park 1 , Pil-Jong Kim 2, Joohon Sung 3, Yun-Mi Song 4, Hong-Gee Kim 5, Young Ho Kim 6, Seung-Hak Baek 7

1 PhD student, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea (seoulbarunsw@gmail.com, Orcid number: 0000-0002-0721-7240)
2 Research Assistant Professor, Biomedical Knowledge Engineering Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. (childcom@snu.ac.kr)
3 Professor, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea (jsung@snu.ac.kr)
4 Professor, Department of Family Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, and Center for Clinical Research, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea (yunmisong@skku.edu)
5 Professor, Biomedical Knowledge Engineering Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea (hgkim@snu.ac.kr)
6 Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Institute of Oral Health Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea (ajouorthod@naver.com)
7 Professor, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea (drwhite@unitel.co.kr; Tel: +82-2-2072-3952; Orcid number: 0000-0002-6586-9503)

Correspondence to:Dr. Seung-Hak Baek, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Daehak-no #101, Jongro-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea; E-mail: drwhite@unitel.co.kr; Tel:+82-2-2072-3952; Fax:+82-2-2072-3817

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective: To investigate differences in the heritability of skeletodental characteristics between skeletal Class I and Class II twin pairs.
Methods: Forty Korean adult twin pairs were divided into Class I group (0°≤ANB≤4°; mean age, 40.7 years-old) and Class II group (ANB>4°; mean age, 43.0 years-old). Each group comprised 14 monozygotic and 6 dizygotic pairs. 33 cephalometric variables were measured using lateral cephalograms. Craniofacial structures were divided into the anteroposterior, vertical, dental, mandible, and cranial base characteristics. The ACE model was used to calculate heritability (A>0.7 indicates high heritability). Then, principal components analysis (PCA) was performed.
Results: In the anteroposterior characteristics, high A values were observed for numerous variables in Class I group and for SNB and facial angle in Class II group. In the vertical characteristics, high A values were observed for FH-PP and PP-MP in Class I group and PP-MP, anterior and posterior facial height in Class II group. In the dental characteristics, high A values were observed only in Class I group. In the mandibular characteristics, CD-Gn and Ar-Go showed high A values in Class II group. The cranial base length variables (S-N, S-Ar, Ar-N) showed high A values in Class II group. The PCA demonstrated that Class I and Class II groups derived eight components with 88.3% cumulative explanation and seven components with 91.0% cumulative explanation, respectively.
Conclusion: The results exhibited differences in the heritability of skeletodental characteristics between skeletal Class I and II twin pairs, which might provide valuable information for growth prediction and treatment planning.

Keywords: heritability, twins, ACE model, principal components analysis