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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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Korean J Orthod

Published online January 21, 2021

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

Effect of nicotine on orthodontic tooth movement and bone remodeling in rats

Sung-Hee Leea, Jung-Yul Chab, Sung-Hwan Choib, Baek-il Kimc, Jae-Kook Chad, Chung-Ju Hwangb

a Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
b Department of Orthodontics, Institute of Craniofacial Deformity, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
c Department of Preventive Dentistry & Public Oral Health, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
d Department of Periodontics, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea

Correspondence to:Chung Ju Hwang.
Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Institute of Craniofacial Deformity, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 1 Yonsei ro, Seodaemun gu, Seoul 03722, Korea.
Tel +82 2 2228 3106, Email: hwang@yuhs.ac

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective: We sought to analyze quantitatively the effect of nicotine on orthodontic tooth movement and bone remodeling in rats using micro-computed tomography and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase immunostaining. Methods: Thirty-nine adult male Sprague−Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: group A, 0.5 mL normal saline (9 rats, 3 per 3, 7, and 14 days); group B, 0.83 mg/kg nicotine (15 rats, 5 per 3, 7, and 14 days); and group C, 1.67 mg/kg nicotine (15 rats, 5 per 3, 7, and 14 days). Each animal was daily administered intraperitoneal injections from the insertion of identical 30 g orthodontic force delivery system. A 5-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil spring was applied between the left maxillary first molar and the splinted 2 incisors. The amount of orthodontic tooth movement rate and volumetric bone changes were measured by micro-computed tomographic analyses. Osteoclast cells were counted on the mesial alveolar bone surface of distobuccal root of the first molar. The 6 dependent outcome variables were summarized with simple descriptive statistics. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to compare differences among groups during 3, 7, and 14 days of orthodontic tooth movement. Results: All 6 dependent outcome variables showed no statistically significant differences among groups at 3, 7, and 14 days after 30 g orthodontic force application. Conclusions: The findings of this study concluded that nicotine did not affect the orthodontic tooth movement and bone remodeling, though the fluctuant changes following the stages of orthodontic tooth movement in nicotine groups can be elucidated in the further prospective studies.

Keywords: Bone remodeling, Micro-computed tomography, Nicotine, Orthodontic tooth movement.

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Korean J Orthod

Published online January 21, 2021

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

Effect of nicotine on orthodontic tooth movement and bone remodeling in rats

Sung-Hee Leea, Jung-Yul Chab, Sung-Hwan Choib, Baek-il Kimc, Jae-Kook Chad, Chung-Ju Hwangb

a Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
b Department of Orthodontics, Institute of Craniofacial Deformity, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
c Department of Preventive Dentistry & Public Oral Health, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
d Department of Periodontics, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea

Correspondence to:Chung Ju Hwang.
Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Institute of Craniofacial Deformity, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50 1 Yonsei ro, Seodaemun gu, Seoul 03722, Korea.
Tel +82 2 2228 3106, Email: hwang@yuhs.ac

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective: We sought to analyze quantitatively the effect of nicotine on orthodontic tooth movement and bone remodeling in rats using micro-computed tomography and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase immunostaining. Methods: Thirty-nine adult male Sprague−Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: group A, 0.5 mL normal saline (9 rats, 3 per 3, 7, and 14 days); group B, 0.83 mg/kg nicotine (15 rats, 5 per 3, 7, and 14 days); and group C, 1.67 mg/kg nicotine (15 rats, 5 per 3, 7, and 14 days). Each animal was daily administered intraperitoneal injections from the insertion of identical 30 g orthodontic force delivery system. A 5-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil spring was applied between the left maxillary first molar and the splinted 2 incisors. The amount of orthodontic tooth movement rate and volumetric bone changes were measured by micro-computed tomographic analyses. Osteoclast cells were counted on the mesial alveolar bone surface of distobuccal root of the first molar. The 6 dependent outcome variables were summarized with simple descriptive statistics. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to compare differences among groups during 3, 7, and 14 days of orthodontic tooth movement. Results: All 6 dependent outcome variables showed no statistically significant differences among groups at 3, 7, and 14 days after 30 g orthodontic force application. Conclusions: The findings of this study concluded that nicotine did not affect the orthodontic tooth movement and bone remodeling, though the fluctuant changes following the stages of orthodontic tooth movement in nicotine groups can be elucidated in the further prospective studies.

Keywords: Bone remodeling, Micro-computed tomography, Nicotine, Orthodontic tooth movement.