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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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eISSN 2005-372X
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Korean J Orthod

Published online September 28, 2021

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

Incidence and management of condylar resorption after orthognathic surgery: An overview

Selene Barone, Giorgio Cosentini, Francesco Bennardo, Alessandro Antonelli, Amerigo Giudice

Selene Barone DDS, Resident, School of Dentistry, Department of Health Sciences, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa – 88100 Catanzaro, Italy; +39 0961712469; E-mail: barone.selene19@gmail.com – ORCID: 0000-0002-0701-2675
Giorgio Cosentini, BSBE, PhD candidate, Department of Health Sciences, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa – 88100 Catanzaro, Italy; +39 0961712469; E-mail: giorgio.cosentini@gmail.com
Francesco Bennardo DDS, PhD candidate, School of Dentistry, Department of Health Sciences, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa – 88100 Catanzaro, Italy; +39 0961712469; E-mail: fbennardo92@gmail.com – ORCID: 0000-0002-6528-2681
Alessandro Antonelli DDS, Resident, School of Dentistry, Department of Health Sciences, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa – 88100 Catanzaro, Italy; +39 0961712469; E-mail: antonellicz@gmail.com – ORCID: 0000-0002-9557-3586
Amerigo Giudice MD, PhD, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon, Professor, School of Dentistry, Department of Health Sciences, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa – 88100 Catanzaro, Italy; +39 0961712469; E-mail: a.giudice@unicz.it – ORCID: 0000-0002-5091-6979

Correspondence to:Professor Amerigo Giudice MD, PhD
Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro Viale Europa – 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
+39 0961712469
E-mail: a.giudice@unicz.it

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective
Condylar resorption (CR) represents one of the major post-surgical complications after orthognathic surgery. This systematic review aimed to evaluate epidemiological data, risk factors, and therapeutical management of CR.
Methods
Six databases were screened by two investigators up to September 2020 to achieve all systematic reviews (SRs). After title and abstract reading, eligible SRs were determined and data extraction was performed. Using the last version of A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Review (AMSTAR-2), the methodological quality of the included SRs was calculated.
Results
Ten SRs were included in this review with low or critically-low methodological quality. Mandibular hypoplasia, on sagittal plane, and hyperdivergent growth pattern, on vertical plane, were the most common skeletal alterations in which CR could occur after orthognathic surgery. Post-operative condylar changes were analysed both on two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) radiographic exams. The incidence of CR was not related to the fixation method. Management of CR can include conservative or surgical therapy, according to severity of the pathological conditions.
Conclusion
Despite a limited literature evidence, CR may be a consequence of orthognathic surgery. However, an accurate diagnosis of CR and a better orthognathic surgical planning must include 3D radiographic examinations to improve presurgical and post-surgical comparison. Well-designed studies with long-term follow-up and three-dimensional data are needed to clarify the findings of this analysis.

Keywords: 3 Dimensional diagnosis and treatment planning, Class III orthognathic surgery, TMJ, condylar resorption

Article

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Korean J Orthod

Published online September 28, 2021

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

Incidence and management of condylar resorption after orthognathic surgery: An overview

Selene Barone, Giorgio Cosentini, Francesco Bennardo, Alessandro Antonelli, Amerigo Giudice

Selene Barone DDS, Resident, School of Dentistry, Department of Health Sciences, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa – 88100 Catanzaro, Italy; +39 0961712469; E-mail: barone.selene19@gmail.com – ORCID: 0000-0002-0701-2675
Giorgio Cosentini, BSBE, PhD candidate, Department of Health Sciences, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa – 88100 Catanzaro, Italy; +39 0961712469; E-mail: giorgio.cosentini@gmail.com
Francesco Bennardo DDS, PhD candidate, School of Dentistry, Department of Health Sciences, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa – 88100 Catanzaro, Italy; +39 0961712469; E-mail: fbennardo92@gmail.com – ORCID: 0000-0002-6528-2681
Alessandro Antonelli DDS, Resident, School of Dentistry, Department of Health Sciences, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa – 88100 Catanzaro, Italy; +39 0961712469; E-mail: antonellicz@gmail.com – ORCID: 0000-0002-9557-3586
Amerigo Giudice MD, PhD, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon, Professor, School of Dentistry, Department of Health Sciences, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa – 88100 Catanzaro, Italy; +39 0961712469; E-mail: a.giudice@unicz.it – ORCID: 0000-0002-5091-6979

Correspondence to:Professor Amerigo Giudice MD, PhD
Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro Viale Europa – 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
+39 0961712469
E-mail: a.giudice@unicz.it

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective
Condylar resorption (CR) represents one of the major post-surgical complications after orthognathic surgery. This systematic review aimed to evaluate epidemiological data, risk factors, and therapeutical management of CR.
Methods
Six databases were screened by two investigators up to September 2020 to achieve all systematic reviews (SRs). After title and abstract reading, eligible SRs were determined and data extraction was performed. Using the last version of A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Review (AMSTAR-2), the methodological quality of the included SRs was calculated.
Results
Ten SRs were included in this review with low or critically-low methodological quality. Mandibular hypoplasia, on sagittal plane, and hyperdivergent growth pattern, on vertical plane, were the most common skeletal alterations in which CR could occur after orthognathic surgery. Post-operative condylar changes were analysed both on two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) radiographic exams. The incidence of CR was not related to the fixation method. Management of CR can include conservative or surgical therapy, according to severity of the pathological conditions.
Conclusion
Despite a limited literature evidence, CR may be a consequence of orthognathic surgery. However, an accurate diagnosis of CR and a better orthognathic surgical planning must include 3D radiographic examinations to improve presurgical and post-surgical comparison. Well-designed studies with long-term follow-up and three-dimensional data are needed to clarify the findings of this analysis.

Keywords: 3 Dimensional diagnosis and treatment planning, Class III orthognathic surgery, TMJ, condylar resorption