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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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eISSN 2005-372X
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Korean J Orthod

Published online October 1, 2021

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

Proposed optimal position of central incisors: a systematic review

Linda Sangalli1,2, Domenico Dalessandri1, Stefano Bonetti1, Gualtiero Mandelli1 and Luca Visconti1, Fabio Savoldi3

1 Dental School, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123, Brescia, Italy
2 Division of Orofacial Pain, College of Dentistry, University of Kentucky, 740 S. Limestone, Lexington, 40536 Kentucky, USA
3 Orthodontics, Division of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, the University of Hong Kong, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, 34 Hospital Road, Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong SAR.

Correspondence to:Dr. Fabio Savoldi
2/F, Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, 34 Hospital Road, Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong S.A.R.
E-mail: fabiosavoldi@live.com, tel: +852 2859 0258, fax: +852 2559 3803

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective: For its consequences on facial esthetics and occlusal function, planning of incisal position is crucial for optimal treatment outcomes. Ideal incisal position is widely debated, and systematic summary of proposed parameters is presented.
Methods: Studies in Google Scholar©, MEDLINE via PubMed©, Cochrane Library, providing quantitative angular and linear information of optimal central incisor position, were included.
Results: For upper incisors, authors reported supero-inferior parameters (3 mm overbite and overjet), antero-posterior parameters (4 mm anterior to N-A and N-B, 2.7 to 3.5 mm anterior to A-Pog, 9 mm in females and 12 mm in males posterior to TVL, 4 to 6 mm anterior to A projection, aligned with ANS and B’ projection), and bucco-lingual angular parameters (22° to N-A, 94 to 100° to S-N, 5 to 7° to Andrews plane, 57 to 58° to occlusal plane, 115° to maxillary plane, 16 to 20° to coronal plane tangent to pupils, perpendicular to true horizontal). Lower incisors were set antero-posteriorly (4 mm anterior to N-B, 1 to 3 mm anterior to A-Pog, 12 to 15 mm posterior to TVL) and angularly with bucco-lingual angulation (90 to 95° to mandibular plane, 65° to FH, -1° to Andrews plane, 25° to N-B, 64° to occlusal plane, 22° to A-Pog, 30 to 27° to coronal plane tangent to pupils).
Conclusion: Although the present findings are relevant as clinical reference, they derived from heterogeneous studies in terms of subject characteristics and reference methods. Therefore, the range of parameters for identifying optimal incisal position is still debatable.

Keywords: esthetics, cephalometrics, orthodontics, occlusion.

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Korean J Orthod

Published online October 1, 2021

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

Proposed optimal position of central incisors: a systematic review

Linda Sangalli1,2, Domenico Dalessandri1, Stefano Bonetti1, Gualtiero Mandelli1 and Luca Visconti1, Fabio Savoldi3

1 Dental School, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123, Brescia, Italy
2 Division of Orofacial Pain, College of Dentistry, University of Kentucky, 740 S. Limestone, Lexington, 40536 Kentucky, USA
3 Orthodontics, Division of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, the University of Hong Kong, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, 34 Hospital Road, Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong SAR.

Correspondence to:Dr. Fabio Savoldi
2/F, Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, 34 Hospital Road, Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong S.A.R.
E-mail: fabiosavoldi@live.com, tel: +852 2859 0258, fax: +852 2559 3803

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective: For its consequences on facial esthetics and occlusal function, planning of incisal position is crucial for optimal treatment outcomes. Ideal incisal position is widely debated, and systematic summary of proposed parameters is presented.
Methods: Studies in Google Scholar©, MEDLINE via PubMed©, Cochrane Library, providing quantitative angular and linear information of optimal central incisor position, were included.
Results: For upper incisors, authors reported supero-inferior parameters (3 mm overbite and overjet), antero-posterior parameters (4 mm anterior to N-A and N-B, 2.7 to 3.5 mm anterior to A-Pog, 9 mm in females and 12 mm in males posterior to TVL, 4 to 6 mm anterior to A projection, aligned with ANS and B’ projection), and bucco-lingual angular parameters (22° to N-A, 94 to 100° to S-N, 5 to 7° to Andrews plane, 57 to 58° to occlusal plane, 115° to maxillary plane, 16 to 20° to coronal plane tangent to pupils, perpendicular to true horizontal). Lower incisors were set antero-posteriorly (4 mm anterior to N-B, 1 to 3 mm anterior to A-Pog, 12 to 15 mm posterior to TVL) and angularly with bucco-lingual angulation (90 to 95° to mandibular plane, 65° to FH, -1° to Andrews plane, 25° to N-B, 64° to occlusal plane, 22° to A-Pog, 30 to 27° to coronal plane tangent to pupils).
Conclusion: Although the present findings are relevant as clinical reference, they derived from heterogeneous studies in terms of subject characteristics and reference methods. Therefore, the range of parameters for identifying optimal incisal position is still debatable.

Keywords: esthetics, cephalometrics, orthodontics, occlusion.