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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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eISSN 2005-372X
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Korean J Orthod

Published online October 27, 2021

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

Periodontal parameters and gingival crevicular fluid cytokines in children with anterior open bite: How do incisors respond to spur attachment?

Gabriel Antônio dos Anjos Tou1, Ivana Márcia Alves Diniz1, Marcus Vinicius Lucas Ferreira1, Ricardo Alves de Mesquita2, Mônica Yamauti3, Tarcília Aparecida Silva2, Soraia Macari1

1 Department of Restorative Destistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil 2 Department of Oral Pathology and Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil 3 Department of Department of Restorative Dentistry, Division of Oral Health Science, Graduate School and Faculty of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586, Japan

Correspondence to:Soraia Macari. Mailingaddress: Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos 6627, CEP 31.270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil.
E-mail: soraiamacari@gmail.com.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) cytokines in children with anterior open bite receiving passive orthodontic treatment. Methods: Twenty children were included in this study and GCF samples were collected from the lower and upper central incisors before spur attachment (baseline) and 24 hours (h) and 7 days (d) after spur bonding. Clinical and periodontal examinations and cytokine analyses were performed. Results: Gingival bleeding (GB) was increased in the lower incisors compared to the upper incisors after spur attachment (7 d). Visible plaque (VP) was correlated with GB (7d) and with GCF volume (24 h). In comparison to baseline, there was an increase in IL-8 levels (24 h and 7 d) in the supper incisors and in IL-1β levels (7 d) in both tooth groups. IL-8, IL-1 β and IL-6 levels were higher in the upper incisors (24 h) compared to the lower ones. Cytokine production was positively correlated with an increase of GCF volume but not with GB, VP, or probing depth (PD). Conclusion: Although orthodontic treatment with a spur in children resulted in increased gingival bleeding in the lower incisors, interleukin levels were higher in the upper teeth and were not correlated with the periodontal parameters. The increase of cytokine levels in the GCF is related to the initial periods of tooth movement during open bite correction with a passive orthodontic appliance.

Keywords: Early treatment. Cell / Molecular biology. Open bite. Spur.

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Korean J Orthod

Published online October 27, 2021

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

Periodontal parameters and gingival crevicular fluid cytokines in children with anterior open bite: How do incisors respond to spur attachment?

Gabriel Antônio dos Anjos Tou1, Ivana Márcia Alves Diniz1, Marcus Vinicius Lucas Ferreira1, Ricardo Alves de Mesquita2, Mônica Yamauti3, Tarcília Aparecida Silva2, Soraia Macari1

1 Department of Restorative Destistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil 2 Department of Oral Pathology and Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil 3 Department of Department of Restorative Dentistry, Division of Oral Health Science, Graduate School and Faculty of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586, Japan

Correspondence to:Soraia Macari. Mailingaddress: Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos 6627, CEP 31.270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil.
E-mail: soraiamacari@gmail.com.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) cytokines in children with anterior open bite receiving passive orthodontic treatment. Methods: Twenty children were included in this study and GCF samples were collected from the lower and upper central incisors before spur attachment (baseline) and 24 hours (h) and 7 days (d) after spur bonding. Clinical and periodontal examinations and cytokine analyses were performed. Results: Gingival bleeding (GB) was increased in the lower incisors compared to the upper incisors after spur attachment (7 d). Visible plaque (VP) was correlated with GB (7d) and with GCF volume (24 h). In comparison to baseline, there was an increase in IL-8 levels (24 h and 7 d) in the supper incisors and in IL-1β levels (7 d) in both tooth groups. IL-8, IL-1 β and IL-6 levels were higher in the upper incisors (24 h) compared to the lower ones. Cytokine production was positively correlated with an increase of GCF volume but not with GB, VP, or probing depth (PD). Conclusion: Although orthodontic treatment with a spur in children resulted in increased gingival bleeding in the lower incisors, interleukin levels were higher in the upper teeth and were not correlated with the periodontal parameters. The increase of cytokine levels in the GCF is related to the initial periods of tooth movement during open bite correction with a passive orthodontic appliance.

Keywords: Early treatment. Cell / Molecular biology. Open bite. Spur.