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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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eISSN 2005-372X
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Korean J Orthod

Published online March 7, 2022

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

Attachment level of Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in saliva-derived biofilms according to bracket raw materials

So-Hyun Parka, Kyungsun Kimb, Soha Choc, Dong-Hwa Chunga, Sug-Joon Ahnd

aDepartment of Orthodontics, Dankook University Jukjeon Dental Hospital, Jukjeon, 16890, Republic of Korea
bDental Research Institute and Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, 101, Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea
cDental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, 101, Daehakro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea
dDental Research Institute and Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, 101, Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea

Correspondence to:Sug-Joon Ahn,
Professor, Dental Research Institute and Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, 101 Deahak-ro, Jongro-Gu, Seoul 03080, Korea.
Tel +82-2-2072-2609 e-mail: titoo@snu.ac.kr

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate differences in the attachment level of the most common oral pathogens, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in human saliva-derived microcosm biofilms with respect to time and bracket materials.
Methods: The samples were classified into three groups of bracket materials 1) monocrystalline alumina ceramic (CR), 2) stainless steel metal (SS), and 3) polycarbonate plastic (PL), and 4) a hydroxyapatite (HA) group. Salivaderived biofilms were grown on each sample after saliva collection from a healthy donor. Realtime polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantitatively evaluate differences in the attachment level of total bacteria, S. mutans, and P. gingivalis at days 1 and 4.
Results: Adhesion of S. mutans and P. gingivalis to CR and HA was higher than to the other bracket materials (SS = PL < CR = HA). Total bacteria demonstrated higher adhesion to HA than to bracket materials, but no significant differences in adhesion were observed among the bracket materials (CR = SS = PL < HA). From days 1 to 4, the adhesion of P. gingivalis decreased, while that of S. mutans and total bacteria increased, regardless of material type.
Conclusions: The higher adhesion of oral pathogens, such as S. mutans and P. gingivalis to CR suggests that the use of CR brackets possibly facilitates gingival inflammation and enamel decalcification during orthodontic treatment.

Keywords: Bracket, Microbiology, Multispecies biofilms, Oral pathogen

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Korean J Orthod

Published online March 7, 2022

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

Attachment level of Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in saliva-derived biofilms according to bracket raw materials

So-Hyun Parka, Kyungsun Kimb, Soha Choc, Dong-Hwa Chunga, Sug-Joon Ahnd

aDepartment of Orthodontics, Dankook University Jukjeon Dental Hospital, Jukjeon, 16890, Republic of Korea
bDental Research Institute and Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, 101, Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea
cDental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, 101, Daehakro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea
dDental Research Institute and Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, 101, Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea

Correspondence to:Sug-Joon Ahn,
Professor, Dental Research Institute and Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, 101 Deahak-ro, Jongro-Gu, Seoul 03080, Korea.
Tel +82-2-2072-2609 e-mail: titoo@snu.ac.kr

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate differences in the attachment level of the most common oral pathogens, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in human saliva-derived microcosm biofilms with respect to time and bracket materials.
Methods: The samples were classified into three groups of bracket materials 1) monocrystalline alumina ceramic (CR), 2) stainless steel metal (SS), and 3) polycarbonate plastic (PL), and 4) a hydroxyapatite (HA) group. Salivaderived biofilms were grown on each sample after saliva collection from a healthy donor. Realtime polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantitatively evaluate differences in the attachment level of total bacteria, S. mutans, and P. gingivalis at days 1 and 4.
Results: Adhesion of S. mutans and P. gingivalis to CR and HA was higher than to the other bracket materials (SS = PL < CR = HA). Total bacteria demonstrated higher adhesion to HA than to bracket materials, but no significant differences in adhesion were observed among the bracket materials (CR = SS = PL < HA). From days 1 to 4, the adhesion of P. gingivalis decreased, while that of S. mutans and total bacteria increased, regardless of material type.
Conclusions: The higher adhesion of oral pathogens, such as S. mutans and P. gingivalis to CR suggests that the use of CR brackets possibly facilitates gingival inflammation and enamel decalcification during orthodontic treatment.

Keywords: Bracket, Microbiology, Multispecies biofilms, Oral pathogen