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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X
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Korean J Orthod   

First Published Date August 30, 2022

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

Associations between body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) with the dental health component of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN-DHC) and other BDD risk factors in orthodontic patients: a preliminary study

Farhad Sobouti DDS, MS;1,2 Foruzan Elyasi MD, MS;3 Reza Alizadeh Navaei MD, PhD;4 Farbod Rayatnia DDS;5 Nika Rezaei Kalantari DDS;6 Sepideh Dadgar DDS, MS;1,2,* Vahid Rakhshan DDS, PhD;7

1 Associate Professor, Dental Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Orthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
3 Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Center, Addiction Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
4 Epidemiologist, Gastrointestinal Cancer Research Center, Non-communicable Diseases Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
5 Dentistry Student, Student Research Committee, Faculty of Dentistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
6 Dentist in private practice, Sari, Iran.
7 Epidemiologist, Lecturer, Department of Anatomy, Dental School, Azad University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Correspondence to:Sepideh Dadgar, Orthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. email: drha1345@yahoo.com dadgar_sepideh@yahoo.com.

Abstract

Introduction: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder that may be negatively associated with the self-image. It might be associated with orthodontic treatment demand and outcome, and therefore is important. Thus, this study was conducted.
Methods: The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale modified for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDDYBOCS) questionnaire was used in 699 orthodontic patients older than 12 (222 males, 477 females), at 7 clinics in 2 cities (2020-2021). BDD diagnosis/severity were calculated based on both the first 3 items and all 12 items. The dental health component of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN-DHC) was assessed by orthodontists. Multivariable/bivariable statistical analyses were performed on ordinal/dichotomized BDD diagnoses to assess potentially associated factors (IOTN-DHC, age, sex, marital status, education level, previous orthodontic consultation) (α=0.05).
Results: IOTN-DHC scores 1-5 were seen in 13.0%, 39.9%, 29.8%, 12.4%, and 4.9% of patients. Age/sex/marital status/education were not associated with IOTN-DHC (P>0.05). Based on 3-item questionnaire, 17.02% of patients had BDD (14.02% mild). Based on 12-item questionnaire, 2.86% had BDD. BDD was more prevalent or severer in females, married patients, patients with a previous history of orthodontic consultation, and patients with milder IOTN-DHCs (P<0.05).
Conclusions: IOTN-DHC was negatively/slightly associated with BDD in orthodontic patients. Being female and married may increase BDD risk.

Keywords: Body Dysmorphic Disorder, Dental Health Component of The Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-DHC), Psychology, Orthodontic Index.

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Korean J Orthod   

First Published Date August 30, 2022

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

Associations between body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) with the dental health component of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN-DHC) and other BDD risk factors in orthodontic patients: a preliminary study

Farhad Sobouti DDS, MS;1,2 Foruzan Elyasi MD, MS;3 Reza Alizadeh Navaei MD, PhD;4 Farbod Rayatnia DDS;5 Nika Rezaei Kalantari DDS;6 Sepideh Dadgar DDS, MS;1,2,* Vahid Rakhshan DDS, PhD;7

1 Associate Professor, Dental Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Orthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
3 Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Center, Addiction Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
4 Epidemiologist, Gastrointestinal Cancer Research Center, Non-communicable Diseases Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
5 Dentistry Student, Student Research Committee, Faculty of Dentistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
6 Dentist in private practice, Sari, Iran.
7 Epidemiologist, Lecturer, Department of Anatomy, Dental School, Azad University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Correspondence to:Sepideh Dadgar, Orthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. email: drha1345@yahoo.com dadgar_sepideh@yahoo.com.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder that may be negatively associated with the self-image. It might be associated with orthodontic treatment demand and outcome, and therefore is important. Thus, this study was conducted.
Methods: The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale modified for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDDYBOCS) questionnaire was used in 699 orthodontic patients older than 12 (222 males, 477 females), at 7 clinics in 2 cities (2020-2021). BDD diagnosis/severity were calculated based on both the first 3 items and all 12 items. The dental health component of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN-DHC) was assessed by orthodontists. Multivariable/bivariable statistical analyses were performed on ordinal/dichotomized BDD diagnoses to assess potentially associated factors (IOTN-DHC, age, sex, marital status, education level, previous orthodontic consultation) (α=0.05).
Results: IOTN-DHC scores 1-5 were seen in 13.0%, 39.9%, 29.8%, 12.4%, and 4.9% of patients. Age/sex/marital status/education were not associated with IOTN-DHC (P>0.05). Based on 3-item questionnaire, 17.02% of patients had BDD (14.02% mild). Based on 12-item questionnaire, 2.86% had BDD. BDD was more prevalent or severer in females, married patients, patients with a previous history of orthodontic consultation, and patients with milder IOTN-DHCs (P<0.05).
Conclusions: IOTN-DHC was negatively/slightly associated with BDD in orthodontic patients. Being female and married may increase BDD risk.

Keywords: Body Dysmorphic Disorder, Dental Health Component of The Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-DHC), Psychology, Orthodontic Index.