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KJO Korean Journal of Orthodontics

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pISSN 2234-7518
eISSN 2005-372X

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Korean J Orthod   

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

A scoping review of cephalometric normative data in children

Tuan Khang Nguyen1, Akanksha Cambala1, Manuela Isabelle Hrit1, Elizabeth A. Zimmermann1,*

1Faculty of Dental Medicine and Oral Health Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Correspondence to:*Elizabeth A. Zimmermann, Ph.D.
Assistant professor
Faculty of Dental Medicine and Oral Health Sciences, McGill University
Strathcona Anatomy and Dentistry Building, 3640 rue University, Room M/65B
Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 0C7
Elizabeth.Zimmermann@mcgill.ca

Abstract

Objective: Understanding orofacial characteristics and growth patterns in children is essential in both orthodontics and research on children with orofacial abnormalities. However, a concise resource aggregating normative data on the size and relative position of these structures in different populations is not available. Our objective was to aggregate normative data assessing the growth of orofacial skeletal structures in children with well-balanced face and normal occlusion. Methods: A search of Medline, Embase, and Scopus was performed. Inclusion criteria included longitudinal and cross-sectional studies on cephalometric measurement of skeletal tissues and a study population ≤ 18 years with a well-balanced face and normal occlusion. Key study parameters were extracted and knowledge was synthesized. Quality appraisal was performed through a 10-point grading scale. Results: Final selection comprised 12 longitudinal and 33 cross-sectional studies, whose quality ranged from pretty good to excellent. Our results showed that, from childhood to adulthood, the length of the cranial base increased significantly, while cranial base angle remained constant; the maxilla and mandible moved forward and downward. The profile became straighter with age. Conclusions: Growth patterns for children with well-balanced face and normal occlusion follow accepted theories of growth.

Keywords: Cephalometrics, normative data, pediatric dentistry

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Korean J Orthod   

First Published Date March 25, 2024

Copyright © The Korean Association of Orthodontists.

A scoping review of cephalometric normative data in children

Tuan Khang Nguyen1, Akanksha Cambala1, Manuela Isabelle Hrit1, Elizabeth A. Zimmermann1,*

1Faculty of Dental Medicine and Oral Health Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Correspondence to:*Elizabeth A. Zimmermann, Ph.D.
Assistant professor
Faculty of Dental Medicine and Oral Health Sciences, McGill University
Strathcona Anatomy and Dentistry Building, 3640 rue University, Room M/65B
Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 0C7
Elizabeth.Zimmermann@mcgill.ca

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective: Understanding orofacial characteristics and growth patterns in children is essential in both orthodontics and research on children with orofacial abnormalities. However, a concise resource aggregating normative data on the size and relative position of these structures in different populations is not available. Our objective was to aggregate normative data assessing the growth of orofacial skeletal structures in children with well-balanced face and normal occlusion. Methods: A search of Medline, Embase, and Scopus was performed. Inclusion criteria included longitudinal and cross-sectional studies on cephalometric measurement of skeletal tissues and a study population ≤ 18 years with a well-balanced face and normal occlusion. Key study parameters were extracted and knowledge was synthesized. Quality appraisal was performed through a 10-point grading scale. Results: Final selection comprised 12 longitudinal and 33 cross-sectional studies, whose quality ranged from pretty good to excellent. Our results showed that, from childhood to adulthood, the length of the cranial base increased significantly, while cranial base angle remained constant; the maxilla and mandible moved forward and downward. The profile became straighter with age. Conclusions: Growth patterns for children with well-balanced face and normal occlusion follow accepted theories of growth.

Keywords: Cephalometrics, normative data, pediatric dentistry