KJO open access, per-reviewed, Bimonthly

pISSN 2234-7518 eISSN 2005-372X

May 25, 2020Current Issue Vol. 50 No. 3

    May, 2020 | Volume 50, No. 3
  • Reader's Forum 2020-05-25

  • Original Article 2020-05-25

    Assessment of bone density changes following two-jaw surgery using multidetector computed tomography: A pilot study

    Youngjoo Lee Jae Hyun Park Na-Young Chang Mi-Young Lee Bong Chul Kim Hye Young Seo Utkarsh Mangal Jong-Moon Chae

    Abstract : Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the pre- and postsurgical bone densities at alveolar and extra-alveolar sites following twojaw orthognathic surgery. Methods: The sample consisted of 10 patients (mean age, 23.2 years; range, 18.0–27.8 years; 8 males, 2 females) who underwent two-jaw orthognathic surgery. A three-dimensional imaging program (Invivo 5) was used with multidetector computed tomography images taken preand postoperatively (obtained 32.3 ± 6.0 days before surgery and 5.8 ± 2.6 days after surgery, respectively) for the measurement of bone densities at the following sites: (1) alveolar bone in the maxilla and mandible, (2) extra-alveolar sites, such as the top of the head, menton (Me), condyle, and the fourth cervical vertebrae (C4). Results: When pre- and postsurgical bone densities were compared, an overall tendency of decrease in bone density was noted. Statistically significant reductions were observed in the densities of cancellous bone at several areas of the maxillary alveolar bone; cortical and cancellous bone in most areas of the mandibular alveolar bone; cortical bone in Me; and cancellous bone in C4. There was no statistically significant difference in bone density in relation to the depth of the alveolar bone. In a comparison of the bone densities between groups with and without genioplasty, there was almost no statistically significant difference. Conclusions: Accelerated tooth movement following orthognathic surgery may be confirmed with reduced bone density. In addition, this study could offer insights into bone metabolism changes following orthognathic surgery, providing direction for further investigations in this field.

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  • Original Article 2020-05-25

    Evaluation of growth changes induced by functional appliances in children with Class II malocclusion: Superimposition of lateral cephalograms on stable structures

    Eunhye Oh , Sug-Joon Ahn, Liselotte Sonnesen

    Abstract : Objective: To compare short- and long-term dentoalveolar, skeletal, and rotational changes evaluated by Björk’s structural method of superimposition between children with Class II malocclusion treated by functional appliances and untreated matched controls. Methods: Seventy-nine prepubertal or pubertal children (mean age, 11.57 ± 1.40 years) with Class II malocclusion were included. Thirty-four children were treated using an activator with a high-pull headgear (Z-activator), while 28 were treated using an activator without a headgear (E-activator). Seventeen untreated children were included as controls. Lateral cephalograms were obtained before treatment (T1), after functional appliance treatment (T2), and after retention in the postpubertal phase (T3). Changes from T1 to T2 and T1 to T3 were compared between the treated groups and control group using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Relative to the findings in the control group at T2, the sagittal jaw relationship (subspinale-nasion- pogonion, p < 0.001), maxillary prognathism (sella-nasion-subspinale, p < 0.05), and condylar growth (p < 0.001) exhibited significant improvements in the Z- and E-activator groups, which also showed a significantly increased maxillary incisor retraction (p < 0.001) and decreased overjet (p < 0.001). Only the E-activator group exhibited significant backward rotation of the maxilla at T2 (p < 0.01). The improvements in the sagittal jaw relationship (p < 0.01) and dental relationship (p < 0.001) remained significant at T3. Condylar growth and jaw rotations were not significant at T3. Conclusions: Functional appliance treatment in children with Class II malocclusion can significantly improve the sagittal jaw relationship and dental relationships in the long term.

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  • Original Article 2020-05-25

    Evaluation of cephalometric characteristics and skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae and hand-wrist in girls with central precocious puberty

    Sung-Tae Kang , Sung-Hwan Choi, Kyung-Ho Kim et al.

    Abstract : Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the differences in cephalometric characteristics and skeletal maturation in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) via lateral and hand-wrist radiographs. We also aimed to identify the indicators that are most effective for determining skeletal maturity in these patients. Methods: The study included 70 Korean girls (mean age, 8.5 ± 0.5 years) diagnosed with CPP at the Department of Pediatrics, and 48 normal healthy age-matched girls who visited the Department of Orthodontics and had no history of hormone treatment or growth problems. Skeletal maturation was evaluated using lateral cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs using cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMI) and skeletal maturity indicators (SMI). Results: The mean mandibular plane angle was smaller in the CPP group than in the control group (35.8° ± 4.9° vs. 39.0° ± 6.5°), resulting in greater posterior facial height (p = 0.003). SMI was significantly greater in the CPP group (3.5 ± 1.4 vs. 2.0 ± 1.0) than in the control group (p = 0.001) and was significantly associated with CPP (r = 0.492; p = 0.001), whereas CVMI was not. Conclusions: In comparison with the control group, the CPP group exhibited a smaller mandibular plane angle, greater posterior facial height, and greater skeletal maturation. SMI may be more suitable than CVMI for determining skeletal maturation in CPP. Hand-wrist radiography is recommended in addition to lateral cephalogram for predicting growth in girls with CPP.

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  • Original Article 2020-05-25

    Periodontal ligament proliferation and expressions of bone biomolecules upon orthodontic preloading: Clinical implications for tooth autotransplantation

    Sasathorn Phutinart , Suttichai Krisanaprakornkit, Anupong Makeudom et al.

    Abstract : Objective: Preservation of the periodontal ligament (PDL) is vital to the success of tooth autotransplantation (TAT). Increased PDL volumes and facilitated tooth extraction have been observed upon orthodontic preloading. However, it is unclear whether any changes occur in the expressions of bone biomolecules in the increased PDL volumes. This study aimed to determine the expressions of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in PDL upon preloading. Methods: Seventy-two premolars from 18 patients were randomly assigned to experimental groups that received a leveling force for 1, 2, or 4 weeks or to a control unloaded group. Following extraction, PDL volumes from 32 premolars of eight patients (21.0 ± 3.8 years) were evaluated using toluidine blue staining. The expressions of the biomolecules in the PDL from 40 premolars of ten patients (21.4 ± 4.0 years) were analyzed via immunoblotting. Results: The median percentage of stained PDL was significantly higher at 2 and 4 weeks after preloading than in the unloaded condition (p < 0.05). The median RUNX2 and ALP expression levels were significantly higher at 2 and 4 weeks after preloading than in the unloaded condition (p < 0.05), whereas the median RANKL/OPG ratios were significantly higher at 1 and 4 weeks after preloading (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Orthodontic preloading for 4 weeks enhances PDL volumes as well as the expressions of RUNX2, ALP and the RANKL/OPG ratio in the PDL, suggesting this loading period is suitable for successful TAT.

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  • Original Article 2020-05-25

    Estimation of the prevalence of malocclusion on the basis of nationwide oral health examinations of pre-adolescent and adolescent students during 2012–2017

    Mihee Hong , Hee-Moon Kyung, Hyo-Sang Park et al.

    Abstract : Objective: To investigate the prevalence of malocclusion with respect to grade, sex, and year among Korean pre-adolescent and adolescent students during 2012–2017. Methods: A total of 165,996 students (first grade [E1, 6–7 years of age], fourth grade [E4, 9–10 years], seventh grade [M1, 12–13 years], and tenth grade [H1, 15–16 years]) were selected by stratified sampling method and underwent the nationwide oral health examination performed by the Ministry of Education, Republic of Korea. The malocclusion assessments based on dentists’ judgments were “no malocclusion,” “needs orthodontic treatment (N-OTx),” and “under orthodontic treatment (U-OTx).” The sum of N-OTx and U-OTx cases was determined as the number of students with malocclusion. After analyzing the prevalence of malocclusion according to grade, sex, and year-by-year differences, Pearson correlation analyses and two-way analyses of variance were performed. Results: The prevalence of malocclusion was 18.7%, which increased with the grades (E1 [8.3%] < E4 [15.8%] < M1 [22.9%] < H1 [25.3%], p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of malocclusion in each grade group for the period (p > 0.05) without significant correlation (E1, ρ = 0.129; E4, ρ = –0.495; M1, ρ = 0.406; H1, ρ = –0.383; all p > 0.05). The prevalence of malocclusion within each grade group over the six-year period was more prominent in the female (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Further studies are necessary to modify the malocclusion assessment method to account for specific types of malocclusion in pre-adolescent and adolescent students.

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  • Case Report 2020-05-25

    Surgical approach and orthodontic treatment of mandibular condylar osteochondroma

    So Jin Yang , Nam Hyung Chung, Jong Ghee Kim et al.

    Abstract : Osteochondroma is a common benign tumor of bones, but it is rare in the mandibular condyle. With its outgrowth it manifests clinically as deviation of the mandible limitation of mouth opening, and facial asymmetry. After the tumor is diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms and radiographic examination including cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) analysis, an appropriate surgery and treatment plan should be formulated. Herein, we present the case of a 44-year-old female patient who visited our dental hospital because her chin point had been deviating to the left side slowly but progressively over the last 3 years and she had difficulty masticating. Based on CBCT, she was diagnosed with skeletal Class III malocclusion accompanied by osteochondroma of the right mandibular condyle. Maxillary occlusal cant with the right side down was observed, but it was confirmed to be an extrusion of the molars associated with dental compensation. Therefore, after intrusion of the right molars with the use of temporary anchorage devices, sagittal split ramus osteotomy was used to remove the tumor and perform orthognathic surgery simultaneously. During 6 months after the surgery, continuous bone resorption and remodeling were observed in the condyle of the affected side, which led to a change in occlusion. During the postoperative orthodontic treatment, intrusive force and buccal torque were applied to the molars on the affected side, and a proper buccal overjet was created. After 18 months, CBCT revealed that the rate of bone absorption was continuously reduced, bone corticalization appeared, and good occlusion and a satisfying facial profile were achieved.

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  • Case Report 2020-05-25

    Unilateral maxillary central incisor root resorption after orthodontic treatment for Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion with significant maxillary midline deviation: A possible correlation with root proximity to the incisive canal

    Toshihiro Imamura , Shunsuke Uesugi, Takashi Ono

    Abstract : Root resorption can be caused by several factors, including contact with the cortical bone. Here we report a case involving a 21-year-old female with Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion who exhibited significant root resorption in the maxillary right central incisor after orthodontic treatment. The patient presented with significant left-sided deviation of the maxillary incisors due to lingual dislocation of the left lateral incisor and a Class II molar relationship. Cephalometric analysis demonstrated a Class I skeletal relationship (A pointnasion-B point, 2.5°) and proclined maxillary anterior teeth (upper incisor to sella-nasion plane angle, 113.4°). The primary treatment objectives were the achievement of stable occlusion with midline agreement between the maxillary and mandibular dentitions and appropriate maxillary anterior tooth axes and molar relationship. A panoramic radiograph obtained after active treatment showed significant root resorption in the maxillary right central incisor; therefore, we performed cone-beam computed tomography, which confirmed root resorption along the cortical bone around the incisive canal. The findings from this case, where different degrees of root resorption were observed despite comparable degrees of orthodontic movement in the bilateral maxillary central incisors, suggest that the incisive canal could be an inducing factor for root resorption. However, further investigation is necessary to confirm this assumption.

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Vol.50 No.3

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pISSN 2234-7518 eISSN 2005-372X

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