Abstract : Objective: To develop a standardized instrument to measure the level of cognition for orthodontic treatment in adults, and verify its reliability and validity for assessing perceptions of orthodontic treatment in adults. Methods: A total of 406 adults aged 19–64 years were surveyed by an internet research system. A tool was developed through the instrument development and verification stages. The data were analyzed by correlation analysis, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and Cronbach’s α test. Results: The instrument consisted of 11 items covering four factors related to orthodontic treatment. Three items were related to general perception, four described the perception of the treatment for adults, two related to the treatment effects, and two related to the retention of orthodontic treatment. In the reliability test, Cronbach’s α was 0.845 for the 11 items. In assessments for individual components, Cronbach’s α was 0.764 for the general perception of orthodontic treatment, 0.705 for the perception of this treatment for adults, 0.707 for the effects of the treatment, and 0.701 for the retention of orthodontic treatment. Finally, a measurement instrument for the perception of orthodontic treatment in adults was designed to assess the 11 items on a four-point Likert scale. Conclusions: This study developed a standard measurement instrument for assessing the perception of orthodontic treatment in adults. The proposed instrument will enable additional studies on the influence of an adult’s perception of orthodontic treatment on the decision to undergo treatment.
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Abstract : Objective: To compare computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) customized nitinol retainers with standard stainlesssteel fixed retainers over a 12-month study period. Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted on 62 patients randomly allocated to a control group that received stainless-steel retainers or a test group that received customized CAD/CAM nickel-titanium retainers. Four time points were defined: retainer placement (T0) and 1-month (T1), 6-month (T2), and 12-month (T3) follow-up appointments. At each time point, Little’s irregularity index (LII) (primary endpoint) and dental stability measurements such as intercanine width were recorded in addition to assessment of periodontal parameters. Radiological measurements such as the incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) were recorded at T0 and T3. Failure events (wire integrity or debonding) were assessed at each time point. Results: From T0 to T3, LII and other dental measurements showed no significant differences between the two groups. The data for periodontal parameters remained stable over the study period, except for the gingival index, which was slightly, but significantly, higher in the test group at T3 (p = 0.039). The IMPA angle showed no intergroup difference. The two groups showed no significant difference in debonding events. Conclusions: This RCT conducted over a 12-month period demonstrated no significant difference between customized CAD/CAM nickel-titanium lingual retainers and standard stainlesssteel lingual retainers in terms of dental anterior stability and retainer survival. Both retainers eventually appeared to be equally effective in maintaining periodontal health.
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Abstract : Objective: To investigate the distribution, side involvement, phenotype, and associated anomalies of Korean patients with craniofacial clefts (CFC). Methods: The samples consisted of 38 CFC patients, who were treated at Seoul National University Dental Hospital during 1998–2018. The Tessier cleft type, sex, side involvement, phenotype, and associated anomalies were investigated using nonparametric statistical analysis. Results: The three most common types were #7 cleft, followed by #0 cleft and #14 cleft. There was no difference between the frequency of male and female. Patients with #0 cleft exhibited nasal deformity, bony defect, and missing teeth in the premaxilla, midline cleft lip, and eye problems. A patient with #3 cleft (unilateral type) exhibited bilateral cleft lip and alveolus. All patients with #4 cleft were the bilateral type, including a combination of #3 and #4 clefts, and had multiple missing teeth. A patient with #5 cleft (unilateral type) had a posterior openbite. In patients with #7 cleft, the unilateral type was more prevalent than the bilateral type (87.0% vs. 13.0%, p < 0.001). Sixteen patients showed hemifacial microsomia (HFM), Goldenhar syndrome, and unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). There was a significant match in the side involvement of #7 cleft and HFM (87.5%, p < 0.01). Patients with #14 cleft had plagiocephaly, UCLP, or hyperterorbitism. A patient with #30 cleft exhibited tongue tie and missing tooth. Conclusions: Due to the diverse associated craniofacial anomalies in patients with CFC, a multidisciplinary approach involving a well-experienced cooperative team is mandatory for these patients.
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Abstract : Objective: Increased gingival elasticity has been implicated as the cause of relapse following orthodontic rotational tooth movement and approaches to reduce relapse are limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of sulforaphane (SFN), an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, on gene expression in gingival fibroblasts and relapse after rotational tooth movement in beagle dogs. Methods: The lower lateral incisors of five beagle dogs were rotated. SFN or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were injected into the supra-alveolar gingiva of the experimental and control group, respectively, and the effect of SFN on relapse tendency was evaluated. Changes in mRNA expression of extracellular matrix components associated with gingival elasticity in beagles were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Morphology and arrangement of collagen fibers were observed on Masson’s trichrome staining of buccal gingival tissues of experimental and control teeth. Results: SFN reduced the amount and percentage of relapse of orthodontic rotation. It also decreased the gene expression of lysyl oxidase and increased the gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 1 and MMP 12, compared with DMSO control subjects. Histologically, collagen fiber bundles were arranged irregularly and were not well connected in the SFN-treated group, whereas the fibers extended in parallel and perpendicular directions toward the gingiva and alveolar bone in a more regular and well-ordered arrangement in the DMSO-treated group. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that SFN treatment may be a promising pharmacologic approach to prevent orthodontic rotational relapse caused by increased gingival elasticity of rotated teeth in beagle dogs.
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Abstract : Objective: To investigate and compare the slot sizes and parallelism of metal injection molding (MIM) and computerized numerical control (CNC) brackets. Methods: The following four MIM bracket series with 0.022-inch (in) slots were selected for investigation: Di MIM mini Twin (Ortho Organizers), Mini Diamond Roth (Ormco), Gemini MBT (3M Unitek), and Formula R Roth (Tomy). The following four CNC bracket series with 0.022-in slots were selected for investigation: Econoline MBT (Adenta), Legend mini MBT (GC Orthodontics), Crown mini MBT (Adenta), and Evolve MBT (DB Orthodontics). The slot dimensions were measured using an optical microscope (XTCam-D310M; Mitutoyo) with a resolution of 1 μm. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey post-hoc test with a significance level of 0.05. Results: The results indicated that all the investigated slot sizes were oversized with respect to the manufacturers’ specifications (0.022 in). Among the eight bracket series, the Di MIM bracket (MIM) was the most oversized by 10.4%, whereas the Evolve bracket (CNC) was the least oversized by 2.6%. The slots in seven of the bracket series had divergent walls instead of parallel ones. The Evolve bracket alone had parallel slot walls. Conclusions: Regardless of the manufacturing method, all the slot sizes of the brackets investigated in this study were significantly oversized; most of the slot walls were nonparallel, except for those of the Evolve bracket. This study could not establish that the CNC method was more accurate than the MIM method in manufacturing bracket slots.
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Abstract : Objective: To investigate the dental phenotypes and treatment modalities (Tx- Mod) in Korean patients with Parry–Romberg syndrome (PRS) using longitudinal data. Methods: The samples consisted of 10 PRS patients, who were treated and/or followed-up at Seoul National University Dental Hospital between 1998 and 2019. Using a novel PRS severity index based on the numbers of the atrophy-involved area and asymmetry-involved item, we classified them into mild (n = 3), moderate (n = 2), and severe (n = 5). Dental phenotypes, including congenitally missing tooth (Con-Missing-Tooth), microdontia, tooth with short root (Short-Root), tooth with dilacerated root, and delayed eruption/impacted tooth, were investigated along with Tx-Mod. Results: The side of occurrence of all dental phenotypes showed 100% concordance with the side of PRS involvement. The most two common dental phenotypes were Con-Missing- Tooth and Short-Root (n = 29 and n = 17 in six patients). The sums of the average number of Con-Missing-Tooth and Short-Root increased from mild PRS to moderate PRS and severe PRS cases (1.0, 6.0, and 6.2). In terms of Tx- Mod, growth observation due to mild atrophy, fixed orthodontic treatment, and grafting were used for mild PRS cases. Tx-Mod for moderate PRS cases involved growth observation for surgery due to an early age at the initial visit. For severe PRS cases, diverse Tx-Mod combinations including unilateral functional appliance, fixed orthodontic treatment, growth observation, grafting, and orthognathic surgery were used. Conclusions: The novel PRS severity index may be useful to provide primary data for individualized diagnosis and treatment planning for PRS patients.
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Seung-Ryeol Lee, Jin-woo Lee, Dong-Hwa Chung and Sang-min Lee
Korean J Orthod 2020; 50(2): 75-85
Soonshin Hwang, Yoon Jeong Choi, Sooin Jung, Sujin Kim, Chooryung J. Chung, and Kyung-Ho Kim
Korean J Orthod 2020; 50(2): 98-107
Korean J Orthod 2020; 50(2): 73-74
Ji-won Anh, Ji-Man Park, Youn-Sic Chun, Miae Kim, and Minji Kim
Korean J Orthod 2016; 46(1): 3-12
Han-ah Lee, DDS, MSD, and Young-chel Park, DDS, MSD, PhD
Korean J Orthod 2008; 38(1): 31-40
Gwang-Mo Jeong, DDS, MSD, Sang-Jin Sung, DDS, MSD, PhD, Kee-Joon Lee, DDS, MSD, PhD, Youn-Sic Chun, DDS, MSD, PhD, and Sung-Seo Mo, DDS, MSD, PhD
Korean J Orthod 2009; 39(2): 83-94
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